Essays about Study

Essay On A New Way To Bully

Introduction

The Meaning of Cyberbullying and the Purpose for This Report
Cyberbullying is a new way in which students, and sometimes adults, choose to harass or verbally assault another student or adult. It can take on many forms, like direct messaging on social media sites like “facebook,” “twitter,” or ever growingly more popular “snapchat.” Indirect messages about the victim can be posted on the assailants page without the victim even knowing about it until after the whole school is made aware. Far more rare, moreover far more disgusting, is when a physical attack on the victim occurs, is filmed, and then posted online, or shared via group messages on the phone. To make matters even scarier, the Supreme Court, earlier this year, ruled on a case, virtually making it impossible to make social media, other than email or text messages, to be admissible in any court for the purpose of proving that harassment has occurred.

How This Report Will Affect the Readers

This report will affect the readers in multiple ways. It will help to bring light on a growing problem. Provide students with the information they need to know about cyberbullying, and hopefully provide instructors with enough adequate information to know when cyberbullying may, in fact, be occurring, and arm these instructors with the tools needed to potentially sit down with a student when the signs are recognized to see what is needed to resolve the situation. The Supreme Court (wusa-9.com, 2014) may have ruled that social media is not admissible in courts, but that does not mean that there cannot be consequences in a school setting. Moreover, hopefully by showing the results of the surveys and research conducted, students who have participated on the negative end of cyberbullying can see the harm they have caused, and might want to rethink how they act in the future. Hopefully the victims will know that they are not being ignored.

The Background

It is no longer kids being stupid and knocking over a kids lunch tray, or the after-school fight in the playground. The days of good old-fashioned bullying and abusive hazing are over, and have been replaced by new forms of bullying, forms that completely dehumanize the victim, often times leading to severe injury, severe, self injury, lifelong mental and emotional instabilities, and even suicide.

According to the huge development in the internet in the 21st century, it leads the whole world to the next stage of development, changing everyone’s living habits. When the time that social media became more common to the world, people could contact others with more convenience and more effectively, which prevents the delay from distance, via social media. Moreover, social media allows people to share their thought to their friends and even strangers.

Unfortunately, the increased use of social media as the primary source of communication is directly related to the increased aggression and bullying of others. Based upon the statistics from National Center for Education Statistics, there has a huge increase in numbers of students reported being cyberbullied-from 6.2% in 2009 to 9% in 2011.
The fact that occurs increased in aggression and bullying is the account creating for accessing social media only require few information about the user. People leaving comments with rude and violent without responsibility caused a big wound to the objects. The worst case scenarios end up in suicide. Many of these are by the LGBTQ community. According to the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention (c 2015) and Stern (2014), 46 percent of trans men and 42 percent of trans women in the United States have attempted suicide. This is compared to the national average of 4.6%. One of the most notable cases of this was the suicide of Megan Meier, at the age of twelve, because she was being cyberbullied by the parent of a girl who felt Megan was ignoring (Meier Foundation, 2015)

The Way the Issue Will Be Presented

The issue of cyberbullying will be presented to the reader methodically and scientifically, with original methods and data introduced by myself, and I will include reports, statistics, and data from other sources that will substantiate what I have found.
The main objective of my research is to understand why people be more aggressive on the internet atmosphere. The next step is to find out what kind of platform people use most to share their thoughts, via random-order survey questions to analyze the reason why people are more aggressive, and do so with as much accuracy as possible.

With a better understanding of the reason of the aggressive comments in social media, the research will move to the next objective: finding out how many people have ever suffered from the comments on social media, and get a better idea of what kind of comments made them suffer the most in order to help with the last objective be more accurate.
The last objective is find out the possible way to reduce cyberbullying in the future as a result of the research; suggestions will conclude with experts’ professional viewpoints, and from data retrieved from several reliable sources and compared with the results of our testing. From there, we will hedge off a discussion of what can be done, and what absolutely needs to be done, both on this campus, and in a larger context.

METHODS

How the research and Survey Were Conducted
First of all, I will ask the marketing department of Washington State University to help with my surveys since the department has a mature system to provide surveys.
Second, I will collect the data from surveys randomly, on the campus of Washington State University, targeting included students, employees and professors.
Third, I will look at other studies and surveys conducted throughout the country, and inspect to see if anything has been done by the government to control this issue. In addition, I will explore the various mechanisms that sees social media sites have in terms of recourse for abusive conversations.
Fourth, I will contact administrators of difference social media via email, social media and phone call to collect as much as possible about the numbers of people have experienced cyberbullying. The data collected from those social media admins could help with the analysis of my second and last objective mentioned above.
In order to be accurate in the data collection from surveys, it is necessary to get help from the experienced department in the surveys area. Washington State University’s (WSU) marketing department provided a perfect place to students at WSU for getting help on survey constructing.
Constructing an effective survey is always the most important part of work, so that the very first thing I did is arranging a meeting with WSU’s marketing department in order to complete the survey as soon as possible. Fortunately, it took only a short time waiting for the responses from the marketing department. We had the first meeting the day afterward, although the survey completion took extra time because not many people were working in the department. During the meeting with them, I have noticed that the survey I brought was far from perfect, so I rewrote my surveys under their professional suggestion. In addition, the surveys became clearer and shorter which allowed people doing surveys with more enjoyment.

I started the survey collection immediately right after the completion of surveys. Since then, I have gathered data from given out surveys to random people in campus as the plan. So far I have already gathered 753 people’s surveys, yet it was falling behind my plan. However, people in campus was enjoying to do the survey for me since the survey is well written under the recommendation from the meeting with WSU marketing department.
Besides the work on survey construction and data collection via surveys, one of the main progress I presented at the proposal is gathering information about cyberbullying from the administrators from different social media platform. When the time I was arranging meeting with WSU marketing department, I researched the top social media online at the same time. The top social media included Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Linkedin, Pinterest, Google Plus, Tumblr, Snapchat, Meetup, etc I tried to contact them with the administrator through the contact they left at the sites. There were a few administrators replied my message. I will definitely look for a new approach.

How Was Data Collected

Random Question Survey:
The Survey contained the following closed ended questions:
What is your status here at WSU?: Freshman, Sophomore, Junior, Senior, Graduate, Post-Graduate, Faculty, Staff
What social media venues are you aware of?: Facebook, Twitter, Google Plus, Snapchat, Pinterest, Instagram, LinkedIn
Have you ever felt bullied over any of these social media outlets? yes, no
What site(s) were you most likely to encounter bullying? (same choices as question 2)
Have you participated in actions that may have been perceived as hurtful via social media (remember this survey is anonymous): yes or no
do you identify as a minority racially? yes or no
do you identify as a member of the LGBT community? yes or no
has any abuse you may have encountered caused you to feel depressed? yes or no
Other:
Approximately twenty hours of online research to see what studies have been done regarding the issue at hand, whether or not there are solid data collection points, and whether there are viable solutions to the problem, such as in-school consequences, grade detriments, etc.

RESULTS

The first problem I met with was efficiency. On campus in the summer session is a lot slower than other times. I planned to complete writing the survey within two days, yet it ended up taking three days because the people working for the marketing department are fewer than the fall and spring semester.
The second issue was also time related and similar as the first problem. As I was already two weeks past my funding permission granted, only 753 surveys were gathered, far behind my expectation when I was writing my proposal. On the basis that the summer session in WSU has a lot fewer students taking classes in campus, I found it difficult to ask people to do surveys for me when the population in Pullman is low, unlike the fall and spring semesters. It absolutely slowed my step in moving to the next stage of my project.
The last problem I encountered is the difficulty of contacting the administrators of different social media. Based upon the platform of social media mostly contained their own mature system of message, it creates a complicated environment for me to contact them via e-mail or phone call. It took a lot more time to find out how to contact those administrators through their platform; in addition, a few social medias required extra time to register accounts in order to send private message to the administrators.

The Findings

What is your status here at WSU?:
Freshman: 38 (5%); Sophomores: 37 (5%); Juniors: 151 (20%) Seniors: 188 (25%);
Graduate: 105 (14%); Postgraduate 151 (20%); Faculty: 75 (10%) Staff: 8 (1%)
What social media venues are you aware of?:
Facebook - 100%, Twitter - 100%, Google Plus - 58%, Snapchat - 47%, Pinterest - 73%, Instagram - 70%, LinkedIn - 20%
Have you ever felt bullied over any of these social media outlets? yes, no
yes - 512 (68%); no - 241, (32%)
What site(s) were you most likely to encounter bullying? (same choices as question 2, only for people who answered yes)
Facebook - 100%, Twitter - 90%, Google Plus - 84%, SnapChat - 70%, Pinterest - 0%,
Instagram - 10%, LinkedIn - 0%
Have you participated in actions that may have been perceived as hurtful via social media (remember this survey is anonymous):
yes - 48%; no - 52%
do you identify as a minority racially?
yes - 32%; no - 63%; no answer - 5%
do you identify as a member of the LGBT community?
yes - 8% no - 79%; no answer - 12%
has any abuse you may have encountered caused you to feel depressed? (for those who answered yes)
yes - 73%; no- 25%; no answer - 2%
Outside Findings:
According to nobullying.com (2015), the main reasons for cyberbullying are as follows:
1- People with weight problems
2- People with Disabilities
3- People who belong to racial or religious minorities
4- People who are LGBTQ or perceived as LGBTQ
This is a great chart indicating what types of bullying take place across a plane of ages, socio-ecomonic classes etc, by Docstoc.com:
What Was Learned
I learned that although there is extensive research done on suicide and its prevention, outside of this study, and probably other university studies/surveys done, not much is really known about the true impact of cyberbullying.
I found that though many people were honest on this very private and quick survey, under other circumstances, cyberbullying goes underreported. I wish that in a broader scope, I could find ways to measure the reasons for why this is so; will add more subjectiveness in discussion.
I learned that cyberbullying is a huge problem here on campus, but questions were not asked regarding whether the bullying took place before or after coming here, and whether the assailants were also people that went to go to school here, though, the the survey indicates, assuming honesty, that at least a good portion of the cyberbullying that may be occurring here.

Conclusion and Discussion of Results

Perhaps the most shocking part of this research is how little concreteness there is regarding cyberbullying. I was saddened that the survey conducted was the most finite we could find, and even then, it was largely inconclusive for the reasons discussed above. I have been a victim of cyberbullying myself before coming to WSU, and when I reported it, I was met with doubt and a feeling of uncertainty on the part of faculty and parents on how to handle what happened. It is very clear that with easier access to other people in a much more personal way, bullying has become easier than ever for the bullies, and it seems to be out of control. Without consequences of some kind, it will continue to be just as big of an issue.

Recommendations

More studies need to be conducted throughout universities, high schools, and even grade schools, so we can come up with more concrete results of how big of a problem cyberbullying is, why is it such a problem.
Psychologists and Sociologists need to be invited into this battle more, to get behind why the targets (those being bullied) are being bullied. Considering the demographics that get bullied, we need to look into the minds of those doing the bullying. Perhaps rehabilitative steps, and harsher consequences will allow for these students to really consider the potential harm they are causing their fellow students.

Not mentioned in the survey results for the sake of this paper already being way too long, is the breakdown of age groups. Those who were in the graduate - faculty and staff range, although making up about half of the survey numbers, also accounted for the least amount of cyber-abuse (and thus were excluded from answering a lot of the more important survey questions), suggesting a gap between educational level and such abuse. Some of the postgraduate students and faculty appeared to be members of my generation, however age was not a question in the survey.

Furthermore, more conclusive results, we can make more suggestions to faculty about how to respond to clear incidents of bullying on college campuses, high schools and grade schools. Having more concrete evidence of the damage done to the individuals who are victims of cyberbullying can lead us to knowing how to better give the support that these victims need, both as fellow students, and as faculty.

Works Cited

American Foundation for Suicide Prevention. www.afsp.org. Our effectiveness in preventing
suicide ultimately depends on more fully understanding how and why suicide occurs. 2015. Web. 2015.
Contributors. www.nobullying.com. The Complicated Web Of Teen Lives. 2015 Bullying
Report. June 2015. Web. 2015.
Bohanna I. & Wang X. Media guidelines for the responsible reporting of suicide: a
review of effectiveness. Crisis: Journal of Crisis Intervention & Suicide, 33(4): 190–8. 2012. Print. 2015.
Burdine, N. www.wusa9.com/. Supreme Court hears social media and free speech case.
TEGNA Company (Washington D.C.). Dec. 2014. Web. 2015
Megan Meier Foundation. MEGAN TAYLOR MEIER. Meganmeierfoundation.org. 2015
web. 2015.
Public Domain. www.docstoc.com. Bullying Behavior chart. June 2010. Web. 2015
Stern, M. www.slate.com. What Drives So Many Trans* People to Suicide?. Jan 2014.
Web. 2015.

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Critical Early Stages Of Childhood Essay Example

Abstract

The child’s trust in people is formed in the early stages of development. The factors that influence the impact of the child’s ambitions, such as taking the initiative and being active in the world, feeling confident were discussed. In studies reviewed, researchers wanted to determine the impact of relationship with parents and educators during the early stages of development. Research methods included questionnaires, surveys and statistical data. It was found that the relationship between a child and significant adults is very important to shaping the child’s personality, trust and love for her surroundings.
Keywords: childhood, parents,

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Good Example Of How Residential Proximity Affects Student Life Research Paper

Method

This study employed the focus group interview as a method of data collection. Focus group interviews have been found effective in the supplying of information about how people act and feel about a certain topic. Focus group interviews are a qualitative method of research and are very effective in answering questions regarding how people consider an idea, event or experience.

Setting

Five focus group studies were conducted across University of California, Irvine Campus, on the 29th June, 2015 between 1:05pm and 1:32pm. UCI was well suited to the study of off-campus living on student educational engagements because the proximity to

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Essay On Importance of Sleep Quality over Sleep Quantity among College Students

Earlier studies have also reported the correlation between psychological problems (e.g. anxiety and depression) and nightmares, and more recent studies have focused on the correlation between suicidal tendencies and nightmares among adolescents. More particularly, according to Liu (2004), sleeplessness is more widespread in students with higher suicidal tendency, and this pattern is usually attended by frequent nightmares. Nightmares are described as intense dreams characterized by heightened feelings of fear that rouses the person, which normally take place during REM sleep. In a research of individuals experiencing major depression, Agargun and associates (1998) (as cited in Liu, 2004) illustrated that recurrent nightmares are linked to heightened suicidal ideation. Current studies indicate that nightmares are more widespread than initially thought.
Hershner and Chevin (2014) put forth another detrimental impact of sleep quality on psychological wellbeing. They reported that sleep disruption is an important factor which brings about poor sense of worth or self-image, which, in turn, could cause depression. They further conveyed that university experts are more inclined to handle depression as the greatest contributing factor to poor academic outcomes, neglecting the fact that a poor self-image caused by poor sleep quality is major root of depression. Thus, given these gaps in the literature, it is essential to identify the actual fundamental relationship between sleep quality and depression among college students.

Nonetheless, despite the comprehensiveness and validity of the findings about the greater importance of sleep quality over sleep quantity, some researchers claim that proponents of sleep quality did not take into consideration other factors that could influence academic performance among college students. Without taking into account sleep quantity, these researchers argue that it is not possible to draw an accurate conclusion about the actual impact of sleep disorders on the academic performance of college students (Wolfson & Carskadon, 2003). The studies of educators, social scientists, and developmental psychologists in evaluating aspects that focus on disparities in academic performance have emphasized the significance of a more inclusive model than most sleep experts have adopted.
Similarly, other social scientists currently argued that researchers that examine the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral performance of college students have to take into full account of the quantity of sleep on the psychological and physiological health of college students. They argue that sleep quality alone cannot account for the full aspect of the academic performance of college students. For instance, studies have reported that shorter duration of sleep affects the ability of college students to focus during classroom activities and examinations. Lawrence Epstein, a medical professor at Harvard University, argues for the importance of sleep quantity (American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2007, para 3):
Recent studies have shown that adequate sleep is essential to feeling awake and alert, maintaining good health and working at peak performance. After two weeks of sleeping six hours or less a night, students feel as bad and perform as poorly as someone who has gone without sleep for 48 hours. New research also highlights the importance of sleep in learning and memory. Students getting adequate amounts of sleep performed better on memory and motor tasks than did students deprived of sleep.
Several researchers support lengthier sleep for students because brain functions are also dependent on the amount of sleep an individual receives.

All of these contentions are valid and reasonable. It is true that both sleep quality and sleep quantity should be taken into account in the examination of the physical, cognitive, and behavioral performance of college students. Both sleep quality and sleep quantity affect the overall wellbeing of an individual. However, the primacy of sleep quality over sleep quantity has been supported by a fair number of studies. Stenzel (2015) firmly argues that college students should be trained in time management and taught about the importance of quality of sleep. He found out from his study of the impact of sleep quality on college students’ behavior that sleeping longer during weekends or free time does not compensate for the lack of efficient sleep. Deficient sleep quality is harder to recover than inadequate sleep quantity. Hence the argument of this paper stands—there should be a greater emphasis on sleep quality among college students.
In conclusion, there is a certain level of confusion between sleep quality and sleep quantity. Many mistakenly interchange the two. Sleep quantity refers to the quantifiable aspect of sleep, such as duration and amount of sleep, whereas sleep quality refers to the intangible characteristic of sleep such as its efficiency and depth. It is the contention of this paper that sleep quality has a greater influence on the academic performance of college students than sleep quantity. There are three supporting premises for this argument: the greater impact of sleep quality on the cognitive performance of students; on the onset of depression; and, on life satisfaction. Poor quality of sleep adversely affects the learning, memory, and concentration skills of students, while nothing of the sort has been mentioned for sleep quantity. According to several studies, too much sleeping can even impair daytime activities, but there is no such thing as ‘excessive’ sleep quality that could detrimentally affect an individual’s psychological, emotional, and physiological performance.
Depressive symptoms usually occur in individuals who are chronically deprived of quality sleep. Staying awake for a number of hours does not significantly contribute to the onset of depression among college students, but excessive stimulation or repetitive arousal during sleep can significantly affect the ability of an individual to cope with internal and external stressors. And, lastly, the wellbeing and quality of life of students is largely determined by the quality of sleep they obtain. The recuperating and invigorating impact of sleep is simply achieved through efficient sleep. However, not everyone is convinced that sleep quality is more important than sleep quantity. Several professionals from various disciplines still adhere to the idea that the duration and amount of sleep that students get significantly affects their ability to perform well academically. Some support a more balanced view of sleep quality and sleep quantity.

Primary References

American Academy of Sleep Medicine (2007, November 30). College students: getting enough sleep is vital to academic success. Retrieved from http://www.aasmnet.org/articles.aspx?id=659.
Edell-Gustafsson, U. (1999). Sleep, psychological symptoms and quality of life in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Uppsala, Sweden: Linkoping University. https://www.google.com.ph/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCEQFjAAahUKEwin5_Ok_PXGAhULSI4KHUqCAZA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.diva-portal.org%2Fsmash%2Fget%2Fdiva2%3A249227%2FFULLTEXT02.pdf&ei=J1ezVee3GIuQuQTKhIaACQ&usg=AFQjCNFTWpGghxcnvGlMBa3jnItZyM3_FA&sig2=bEsX_hMXMTqE9UfyC2lHdw&bvm=bv.98717601,d.c2E
Galambos, N., Howard, A., & Maggs, J. (2010). Rise and fall of sleep quantity and quality with student experiences across the first year of university. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(2), 342-349.
Gikunda, R. et al. (2014). The effect of sleep quantity on performance of students in public universities, Kenya. Merit Research Journal of Education and Review, 2(6), 113-118. https://www.google.com.ph/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCAQFjAAahUKEwiR6rSX_PXGAhWJjo4KHdk2AmQ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmeritresearchjournals.org%2Fer%2Fcontent%2F2014%2FJune%2FGikunda%2520et%2520al.pdf&ei=C1ezVdG4BomdugTZ7YigBg&usg=AFQjCNEUDQJxV-UTOTxn89xNx8eF8IYVog&sig2=6DMgKt4XXobK1l81KvX5xg&bvm=bv.98717601,d.c2E
Gilbert, S., & Weaver, C. (2010). Sleep quality and academic performance in university students: a wake-up call for college psychologists. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 24, 295-306.
Gruber, R. & Brouillette, R. (2006). Towards an understanding of sleep problems in childhood depression. Sleep, 29(3), 351-358. http://www.journalsleep.org/Articles/290401.pdf
Gunnarsdottir, K. (2014). Effects of poor subjective sleep quality on symptoms of depression and anxiety among adolescents. Thesis Paper for the Department of Psychology, 2-16.
Hershner, S., & Chervin, R. (2014). Causes and consequences of sleepiness among college students. Nature and Science of Sleep NSS, 6, 73-84.
Johansson, A. (2012). Sleep-wake-activity and health-related quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease. Linkoping University Medical Dissertations, 1272, 3-107.
Liu, X. (2004). Sleep and adolescent suicidal behavior. Sleep, 27(7), 1351-1358.
Lowry, M., Dean, K., & Manders, K. (2010). The link between sleep quantity and academic performance for the college student. The University of Minnesota Undergraduate Journal of Psychology, 3, 16-19. http://faculty.oxy.edu/clint/physio/article/TheLinkBetweenSleepQuantityandAcademic.pdf
Pilcher, J., Ginter, D., & Sadowsky, B. (1997). Sleep quality versus sleep quantity: relationships between sleep and measures of health, well-being and sleepiness in college students. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 42(6), 583-596.
Stenzel, J. (2015). Sleep quality and negative associated behaviors of college students: A Cross-Sectional Study. The Spectrum: A Scholars Day Journal, 3(10), 1-11.
Telzer, et al. (2013). The effects of poor quality sleep on brain function and risk taking in adolescence. NeuroImage, 71, 275-283.
Trockel, M., Barnes, M., & Egget, D. (2000). Performance among first-year college students: implications for sleep and other behaviors. Journal of American College Health, 49, 125-131.
Wolfson, A. & Carskadon, M. (2003). Understanding adolescents’ sleep patterns and school performance: a critical appraisal. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 7(6), 491-506.

Secondary References

Agargun, M.Y. et al. (1998). Repetitive and frightening dreams and suicidal behavior in patients with major depression. Comparative Psychiatry, 39, 198-202.
Bertocci, M.A. et al. (2005). Subjective sleep complaints in pediatric depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(11), 1158-66.

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Essay On Critically Evaluate The Contribution Of Brain Imaging Techniques To Our Understanding Of Human Cognition

Month and Year

Brain imaging techniques are useful to study different areas of the brain. There are many popular imaging techniques present in the media. Any technique that deals with the structure of the brain and evaluate the mechanism of the brain comes in cognitive brain imaging techniques. In a research study, I read about two techniques PET and MRI. PET stands for positron emission tomography. It helps in identifying disease, working of organs and tissues in the body. MRI stands for magnetic resonance imaging. It also scans the detailed images of organs and tissues present in the body. However, these brain

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Middle Paleolithic Era and the Emergence of Homo Sapiens

Check out this 30-page chapter of a sample research paper on human prehistory in the middle Paleolithic age and behold the mastery of our writers! With their assignment, homework, research, dissertation or essay help online, there is no task too hard for you to accomplish on the highest level of quality. Whenever you feel lost and uninspired or simply lack time, call out for our assistance and tackle all your academic challenges!

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Good Example Of Essay On Does Good Research Sometimes Require That Ethical Issues Be Overlooked?

The Name of the School

Introduction
Some people argue that to make important advances in clinical and scientific research, sometimes, ethical considerations have to be disregarded. In research, ethical issues are generally thought of as the set of rules that distinguish right from wrong. Ethics can take the form of a generalized rule of thumb, such as the “golden rule,” which says that you should not do to others what you would not like done to yourself; or, ethics can be codes of professional conduct, such as the Hippocratic Oath, which says “First of all, do no harm.” Researchers are usually legally bound to

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Essay On Evaluation Of Doctoral Study

Background

In this particular scholarly paper, it is needed to evaluate the crisis in sports and its impact on the parties engaged in the sports. Critically, it can be stated that the implementation of crisis management in the sports and the public relations tactics needed to be explained simultaneously. In case of doctoral studies of the stated problem, one need to follow many steps to deliver a standard paper helpful for the research work (Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya et al., 2013). It is vital to know the known parameters related to subject to evaluate a thorough investigation of the problem. As per the requirement the research questions and theoretical framework have to be worked out to find the best possible results.

Problem Statement

Crisis management and public relations tactics can be considered as two of the most important factors to be countered in sports. One has to understand, how these two factors are directly related to the sports. People attached to the games might find some situation that can lead to an unknown crisis. At this very point in time, the essentiality of crisis management needs to become out of the frame (Al-abed, Tamil & Al-Dubai, 2012). At some point knowledge of public relation can be considered as highly valuable as tactics regarding public relation may come handy to control the crisis on and off the field. Communication is the key to success in crisis management (Dekker, 2007). On the other hand, it needs to be mentioned that commonly in a field of sports some relations can be built around the places within the players, the governing body and even with the fans. The trust and believe to each human relation is very important in such cases. For a famous sports personality, it is the fans that made some sportsman a popular person. So it is the responsibility of the sports person to protect his public image (Al-Qudah, 2009). The main point of the topic is to understand how the knowledge of public relations can effectively act in crisis management. Lack of public relations tactics among the management can be considered as a serious problem, and it is essential to find why management and sports authorities pay less attention to this very topic. Therefore, it is important to consider serious research among the public those are involved in the sports to find out the results (Harkke, 2006). The methodology can be considered as one of the most important tools to make effective data collection regarding the topic.

Purpose Statement

Considering the factors involved in the process, one of the major purposes of the study is to find out how the knowledge of crisis management and public relations tactics effectiveness in every sport. In case of effective communication, the paper will be designed in the way to make out the importance of communication as a public relations management tactic. Identically it is very obvious to know how effectively these parameters can be used to control any crisis (Mizanur Rahman, Mamun, Delwar Hossain & Kante, 2005). Finally a comparison of the moves needed to be explained by evaluating the central research question is given below theoretically (Hung, Altschuld & Lee, 2008). As this a doctoral research paper, purpose statement can define the path to be followed to achieve the preferred target.

Central Research Questions

The central research questions of the paper have been presented below on the basis of which the commencement of the project has to be done. Questions are prepared for the purpose of quantitative analysis.

What is the main motive of acquiring the knowledge of crisis management and public relations tactics?

According to you, to what scale the knowledge of crisis management and public relations tactics are helpful in the sports?
Rate importance of public relations tactics in sports.
How the management and sport’s governing body can come into the frame in order to improve the situation?
Note: In case of scale rating, rate from 1 to 5.

Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework of a doctoral study paper is a very important part to be considered as it will define the success of the research paper. After defining the research problem, it is important to follow the theoretical framework to complete the research paper. After assessing the problem a theoretical rationality is needed to be established (Onuminya, 2006). Now in this section, a pointwise theoretical viewpoint is needed to be presented that disclose the professional authenticity on the basis of which the research has to be concluded (Ostriker, Kuh & Voytuk, 2003). Afterward, the research design and implementation of the research outline have to be organized in such a way that the most effective outcome can be achieved. The research frames and the research questions must be mapped to get the effective results (Säfsten, 2002). At the end, the conceptual conclusion needed to be drawn to produce the outcome of the research work. In case of games and sports a project that puts emphasis on crisis management and public relations, it is essential to predict the outcome of research questions. It must be answered by people attached to the high level of management in sports clubs and sectors. Statistical analysis of the given answers as a quantitative proof can successfully provide the targeted result. That is why prompt conceptual framework has been needed to complete the job as presented above.

Significance of Study

In the last segment of the research paper, it is essential to present the significance of the conceptual work on the basis of data available. By completing critical analysis of the given data, one can verify how rationale it is to acquire the knowledge of crisis management and public relations tactics. Conclusive evidence and supportive theories will certainly back the research outcome to make a solid conclusion about the effective use of knowledge of crisis management and public relations tactics. The process to apply the method can also be revealed successfully after completion of the research study. The evaluation of the project can be successfully done by verifying quantitative data. It is eminent to put a value on public relations tactics to tackle crisis management in any sports considering factors controlling circumstances.

References

Al-abed, A., Tamil, A., & Al-Dubai, S. (2012). Case control study on risk factors associated with esophageal cancer in Yemen. BMC Public Health, 12(Suppl 2), A11. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-s2-a11
Al-Qudah, H. (2009). Evaluating the Position of Active Public Relation Office at Private Jordanian Hospitals from Internal Personnel Perspective: Analytical Study. Eco, 23(2), 99-139. doi:10.4197/eco.23-2.5
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Good Research Paper About Developmental Psychology Research Designs

Introduction

Developmental research focuses on the progression of changes occurring in an organism as it develops. Developmental changes are irreversible. There exist several differences in the magnitudes of development between periods of several years of growth. The development research psychologists seek to understand what changes cause the difference. Considering a speed processing perspective, aging results in the slow cognitive processing speeds inclusive of all the processing components. A prediction of the mean response times of adults advanced in age in comparison to younger adults proves how the cognitive processes slow down with age advancement. The simple linear memory and aging

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Essay On Female Sexual Dysfunction

Female sexual problem is one of the most challenging topics for health care providers as the patient may feel discomfort in discussing the topic or misattribute sexual dysfunction to depression (Nurnberg, Hensley, Lauriello, Parker, & Keith, 1999). On the other hand, health care providers may have inadequate training and insufficient experience to have in-depth sexual discussion with the patient and deal with this problematic issue (Wright & O'Connor 2015). It has been estimated that fewer than 20% of health care providers ask about the sexual activity including enjoyment, difficulties, and frequency (Loeb, Aagaard, Cali, & Lee, 2010). Female sexual dysfunction is better treated with psychological treatment of the patient, and more studies are required for pharmacological treatment.

Causes of Female Sexual Dysfunction

Female sexual dysfunction is an important patient concern that can be ongoing or can occur occasionally. It has been reported that nearly 40% of women have sex related issues in the U.S. and nearly 12% have sexual problems (Shifren, 2013). Female sexual dysfunction may include a number of problems such as absence of sexual desire, inability to arouse the feelings, absence of sexual climax or orgasm, painful intercourse (Wright & O'Connor 2015), or combination of these problems. These problems may arise as a result of physical and/or psychological issues. Physical causes can be the presence of certain biological problems such as diabetes, nerve disorders, heart disease and/or hormonal disturbances. Some medicines can also affect sexual desire and function. Studies have shown that antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), and tricyclics can result in sexual dysfunction (Nurnberg et al., 1999). On the other hand, psychological problems can be stress as well as anxiety. Psychological problems may also include depression and relationship problems. However, occasional problems can occur in sexual functions but long term problems need proper checkup.

Management of Female Sexual Dysfunction

Females may go through the problem of sexual dysfunction at any stage of life. It is important to know the evaluation and management strategies that can help in dealing with the problem of sexual dysfunction. One of the best strategies to deal with the problem is to know the physical aspects of the body. The more a female and her partner know her body, the more they will be able to cope with the problem and find ways to ease sexual difficulties. In order to know more about the body and the problem, it is important to gather as much information as possible. So, a female and her partner can ask their doctor or get help through educational materials to know more about several issues that can affect sex life such as aging, pregnancy, illnesses, menopause, and medicines. It is also important for a female to communicate openly with her partner. Both of them can work together on areas that can improve intimacy and bring them together.

Treatment of Female Sexual Dysfunction

Medical treatment is insufficient
Studies have shown that topical testosterone can help in the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire. However, magnitude of the treatment is small, and there is no long-term safety data. Moreover, studied testosterone replacement preparations have not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Wright & O'Connor 2015). SSRIs, which are commonly used to treat depression and anxiety, can also result in sexual problems. Studies have shown that sexual dysfunction as a result of SSRIs can be treated with the help of bupropion, which is also used to treat depression or stop smoking, or slidenafil, which is helpful in treating erectile dysfunction (Wright & O'Connor 2015). In order to treat atrophic vaginitis, which usually results in pain during intercourse, topical estrogen is effective (Wright & O'Connor 2015).
Before starting a treatment for sexual problem, it is important to address all medical problems, mental health problems, or relationship problems. Usually, pharmacologic therapy is used for those women, who meet diagnostic criteria for a sexual problem or who have distressing problems or who are unable to respond to non-pharmacologic interventions (Shifren, 2013).

Psychological treatment could work better

Researchers have noted that female sexual dysfunction is adversely affected by psychological factors and problems in male sexual activities. So, it has been reported that many cases of female sexual dysfunction can be managed by considering the attitudes and sexual problems of her male partner, i.e. psychological treatment (Shaeer, Shaeer, & Shaeer, 2012).
It can be noted from above mentioned studies that medicinally or pharmacologically it is still difficult to cope with the problem of female sexual dysfunction. So, psychological therapy is best with occasional use of medicines especially for pain.

Concluding Remarks

Sexual problems are often found in women. It can be in different forms usually caused by physical or psychological issues. It is one of the most important issues to consider for normal life of females. Careful evaluation and treatment strategies can help in dealing with this problem. Evaluation can be done by considering all the sex-related issues and other physical as well as psychological aspects of the women, but limited therapeutic options are among the most important challenges for health care providers to deal with female sexual dysfunction. No pharmacologic agent for desire, arousal and/or orgasmic problem has been approved by FDA, probably due to safety problems. So, further studies are required to deal with various issues of female sexual dysfunction and treat them medicinally. Consequently, it can be said that psychological treatment of the female and her sexual partner are essential to deal with the problem of sexual dysfunction.

References

Loeb, D. F., Aagaard, E. M., Cali, S. R., & Lee, R. S. (2010). Modest impact of a brief curricular intervention on poor documentation of sexual history in university-based resident internal medicine clinics. J Sex Med, 7(10), 3315-3321. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.01883.x
Nurnberg, H. G., Hensley, P. L., Lauriello, J., Parker, L. M., & Keith, S. J. (1999). Sildenafil for Women Patients With Antidepressant-Induced Sexual Dysfunction. Psychiatric Services, 50(8), 1076-1078. doi: 10.1176/ps.50.8.1076
Shaeer, O., Shaeer, K., & Shaeer, E. (2012). The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS): female sexual dysfunction among Internet users in the reproductive age group in the Middle East. J Sex Med, 9(2), 411-424. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02552.x
Shifren, J. L. (2013). Sexual dysfunction in women: Management. Retrieved July 26, 2015, from http://www.uptodate.com/contents/sexual-dysfunction-in-women-management
Wright, J. J., & O'Connor, K. M. (2015). Female sexual dysfunction. Med Clin North Am, 99(3), 607-628. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2015.01.011

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