Essays about Body

Essay On BMI & Energy Yielding Nutrients

1a) Name and describe sex-specific forms of obesity with regard to body shape. What are the differences, if any, in health risks, associated with each shape?
Answer : There are various forms of obesity that are signified by age, gender and genetic predisposition. The sex-specific forms of obesity include Android obesity and Gynoid obesity. Both are in contrast with each other with respect to human tendency of developing adipose tissue in the body. The Android obesity is signified by fat deposit in "apple-shape" including shoulder, nape of neck, chest in the upper abdomen which is more evident in males than females. On the other hand, gynoid distribution of fat is signified by causing a "pear-shape" fat deposit around the hip, waist and love handles in the lower abdomen. Gynoid obesity is more prevalent in females than males (Insel, Turner & Ross, 2003).
1b) Name and describe three different methods—among the various existing methods—of assessing body fatness (not BMI). What are some of the key strengths and limitations of each method?
Answer: There are many ways of fat assessment that is level of obesity in a body of a specific individual with respect to nutrition assessment, ways other than BMI include;

Skin fold Thickness - This refers to the measurement of fat in the subcutaneous layers of skin. It is measured using calipers by grasping a fold of skin in the caliper teeth. Is an easy and quick way to measure body fat

Just measures the relative percentage of fat
Requires instrument and some training
Waist to Hip Ratio
This is the ratio of waist and hip measurements; it helps to evaluate fat distribution as well as helps in identification of potential risks to health with respect to level of obesity. Very easy, requires minimal calculation

No training required
Bio Impedance
This is a technical method that involves opposition or impedance of the body against a minimal electrical current that passes through the body. The lean tissue mass in the body acts as a conductor while the fat mass acts as an insulator hence depicting changes in voltage which in turn signify body fat.

Quick method

Measures from legs only thus may be inaccurate
1c) See the attached body mass index (BMI) growth chart. This graph has been plotted for an individual. What can you describe about this individual (including sex, age, height, weight, BMI, and BMI percentile)? How would you evaluate her or his health risks with regard to BMI percentile? Is there an indication, based on current understanding, for further assessment for this individual?

Answer: The growth chart shows statistical data of a 16 year old boy with weight 160.6 pounds and height 67inches. According to the Harris benedict BMI formula, his BMI calculates to 25.1 kg’s per meter square. The BMI percentile of this individual falls in the 75th percentile. The BMI signifies a trend towards obesity since it is already in the overweight range (Insel, Turner & Ross, 2003).
1d) For the same individual above, what are the known health risks going into adulthood if his or her condition remains unchecked, compared to an individual who doesn't have any of the health risks outlined in 1c? What does the CDC say about this?
Answer: The BMI signifies a tendency of obesity. The individual is already over weight which indicates a further vulnerability to fat related diseases and illnesses including high blood pressure and high blood cholesterol levels. This indication can reiterate the fact and need of further assessment of blood lipid profile and blood pressure to check out the fat and obesity status. CDC suggests close dietary monitoring as the risk of weight gain increases with increased consumption of energy yielding nutrients. Physical activity on regular basis is also advised (Insel, Turner & Ross, 2003).

1e) Select just one of the factors leading to obesity and describe its characteristics, explaining why it may be important in an individual's development of obesity.
Answer: The prime cause of obesity is the lifestyle pattern of the individual. This includes dietary habits as well as the inclusion of physical activity in the routine. Dietary habits based on consumption of energy dense foods, high saturated fat intake and more of junk food that is not nutrient dense leads to fat deposition in the adipose tissue of body (Insel, Turner & Ross, 2003). Similarly, lack of daily physical activity in routine on regular basis also contributes to inability of fat loss, and weigh gain. These factors are extremely important and crucial to an individual's tendency of developing obesity since these are major contributive factors which increase the risk of weight gain drastically.

2. Four specific pathways have been outlined for the metabolism of carbohydrate (glucose). In your own words, list and describe key components / characteristics of each:2a) Glycolysis: The other name for glucose degradation which converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+. This process thus produces free energy which is then used to make high energy compounds like ATP- Adenosine Triphosphate. In simpler words, glycolysis is a non-oxygen dependent metabolic pathway which ensures that energy is provided to the body at all times throughout the day and night (Insel, Turner & Ross, 2003). 2b) Pyruvate to acetyl CoA: Pyruvate is a complex compound that helps the transformation of acetyl Co enzyme A as part of a characteristic phase in the citric acid cycle. It acts as a catalyst to complete the cycle and make energy utilization possible. 2c) Citric acid cycle: This is a successive sequence of reactions chemically taking place in all aerobic i.e. oxygen dependent organisms in order to ensure smooth generation of energy through the oxidation of acetate. This acetate is derived from energy yielding nutrients such as proteins, fats and carbohydrates into chemical energy. 2d) Electron transport chain: An Electron Transport Chain, also known as ETC is a successive sequence of reactions chemically taking place through compounds that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron receivers. This process takes place through redox reactions with the help of a membrane creating an electrochemical gradient of protons. Eventually it reaches molecular oxygen to complete the process
2e) In sports/fitness nutrition, what is meant by carbohydrate loading? When is considered useful, if at all? Give an example.

Answer: Carbohydrate also known as the Carb-Loading is usually used by sport men and endurance building athletes. It helps them in maximizing the energy stored in muscles. This stored form energy called glycogen found in liver as well as muscles is maximized by consumption of low glycemic index foods that slowly release glucose in the blood without causing disturbance in the serum glucose level. An example is an athlete consuming large meals in diet including fruits, vegetables and whole grains a day before his race so that he can 'load' his carbohydrate store for the upcoming exertion in marathon (Insel, Turner & Ross, 2003).

Question 3: Please provide a detailed explanation of how the body derives energy from the fat at cellular level? List the key steps (e.g. Beta-Oxidation), the part of cell in which the reaction occurs. What is meant by term ‘lipo-genesis’?
The body derives its energy from fats in the form of fatty acids, as they are stored as triglycerides. Fatty acids are both reduced and anhydrous, giving energy to the body. The fatty acids are found in the form of molecules that are water free. One gram of fatty acid generates 9kcal of energy as compared to 4kcal energy from a gram of carbohydrates. Lipases carry out the lipolysis and then the fatty acids are freed from the glycerol. The free fatty acids can easily enter into blood stream and provide energy to the body. The next step involves Beta-Oxidation, in which the long carbon chains of the fatty acid are broken down into acetyl CoA, enabling the latter enter the TCA cycle. This process takes place in ‘mitochondria’ of the cell. Lipogenesis means such a process that converts acetyl-CoA to fatty acids. This is a stage where the energy is stored in the form of fats, as in acetyl-CoA, energy is present in the form of sugars only. Triglyceride synthesis is an integral part of lipogenesis.


Insel, P., Turner, R., & Ross, D. (2003). Discovering nutrition. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Continue reading 5 Pages

Example Of The Complexity Of Genetically Modified Organisms Research Paper

In the contemporary society, there are various issues that tend to be very controversial yet essential for human existence. One of such issues is related to genetically modified organism (GMO) that is used in food production. GMOs are the organisms that were altered through genetic engineering for the improvement of their qualities and consequent different use in the human life. They are often used for food and industrial purposes. The aim of this paper is to explore the issue of genetically modified organisms from the contemporary perspective and outline their pros and cons. In this regard, attention is paid

Continue reading 10 Pages

Nutrition Analysis Reflection Term Papers Example

I had good day and bad days. June 7th is the good day I opted for, because at that day, I ate meat, vegetable and wheat. It is very balanced. June 6th is the bad day I opted for, because I did not eat vegetable that day. On good day, my diet intakes were as follows; calories-37%, protein-86%, fat-38%, fiber-28%, vitamin A-15.8%, vitamin C-4% and calcium 13.2%. My intake on bad day were as follows; calories-41%, protein-92%, fat-63.8 percent, fiber-44%, Vitamin A-10.4%, Vitamin C-36% and calcium-7.8%. My fiber intake each day is 11g. I did not meet the fiber

Continue reading 5 Pages

Essay On Critically Evaluate The Contribution Of Brain Imaging Techniques To Our Understanding Of Human Cognition

Month and Year

Brain imaging techniques are useful to study different areas of the brain. There are many popular imaging techniques present in the media. Any technique that deals with the structure of the brain and evaluate the mechanism of the brain comes in cognitive brain imaging techniques. In a research study, I read about two techniques PET and MRI. PET stands for positron emission tomography. It helps in identifying disease, working of organs and tissues in the body. MRI stands for magnetic resonance imaging. It also scans the detailed images of organs and tissues present in the body. However, these brain

Continue reading 8 Pages

Essay On Hiring Manager

Dear Hiring Manager,
I am writing this letter to apply for the Pharmaceutical Sales/Territory Manager position that you have posted in last July 15. I believe that your client, a biopharmaceutical company, would find my skills and experiences relating to pharmaceutical and sales industry suitable for the job that they are offering.

The opportunity, benefits, and responsibilities listed for the job offer are very interesting. I am certain that my strong management and sales experience in the pharmaceutical industry make me a truly competitive candidate for this position. Below are two of my key strengths that will allow me to successfully perform the job:
I have spent several years in the sales industry, achieving and exceeding sales target of the companies I previously worked with.

My experience as a Sales Account Manager allows me to grow my knowledge on developing and executing business marketing strategies. With my sales and management experience with pharmaceutical companies, I now have a full understanding of how the industry works, which will be very useful for the position as a Territory Manager. For further reference, attached is my complete resume.


This memorandum serves as an explanation of how my application letter and resume are adapted for the job offer for Pharmeceutical Sales/ Territory Manager posted by the VonKohn Search Group, Inc.
First of all, I made sure that the skills and experiences that I focused on suit the experiences and skills that the company I am applying for needs. The biopharmaceutical company is looking for someone who has a previous selling experience, a highly persuasive selling skill, a strong work ethics, and an excellent verbal communication skill. In my application letter and the resume, these skills are highlighted. For instance, as one of my key strengths, I have specified my sales experience in the application letter. Letting the company know how I have exceeded sales target will clearly show how I am able to demonstrate persuasive selling skills and effective communication skills. In addition, because the company is looking for a Territory Manager, one who can manage pharmaceutical sales territory as a business, I also highlighted my account management skills, both in my application letter and in my resume. One of the key strengths that I listed in the application letter is my experience as a Sales Account Manager, while the same position comes first in the “Career Track” section of my resume. This would allow the company to see right away that I possess the experience and management skills that they require for the position. Most importantly, I mentioned that my past experiences were with pharmaceutical companies because the company which offers the job is a biopharmaceutical company, aiming to maximize sales of their pharmaceutical products.

On the other hand, I opted not to highlight my experiences that are not directly related to the job I am applying for. These are my past experiences as a Cashier/Floor Associate and a Data Entry Technician. As you can see, these were not mentioned in the application letter. However, since I also performed well in these positions, I decided to include these in my resume, too.
For a complete reference of the job opening that I am applying for, you may visit this link:
Thank you!

Continue reading 2 Pages

Middle Paleolithic Era and the Emergence of Homo Sapiens

Check out this 30-page chapter of a sample research paper on human prehistory in the middle Paleolithic age and behold the mastery of our writers! With their assignment, homework, research, dissertation or essay help online, there is no task too hard for you to accomplish on the highest level of quality. Whenever you feel lost and uninspired or simply lack time, call out for our assistance and tackle all your academic challenges!

Continue reading 35 Pages

Free Cardiovascular Diseases Essay Sample

Abbreviated as CVD

Is a phrase that is broadly used to refer to a number of diseases that affects the heart:
And other human blood vessels such as the arteries and veins.
There are basically four major types of cardiovascular diseases. They are:
Aortic disease
Coronary heart disease
Peripheral arterial disease
These diseases are major health problems killing many people worldwide annually.
It is a severe health condition that happens wherever there is cut off in supply of blood to some parts of the brain.

It is a medical problem that can occur to anybody any time

Human brain just like other organs in the human body requires

Continue reading 2 Pages

Essay On Female Sexual Dysfunction

Female sexual problem is one of the most challenging topics for health care providers as the patient may feel discomfort in discussing the topic or misattribute sexual dysfunction to depression (Nurnberg, Hensley, Lauriello, Parker, & Keith, 1999). On the other hand, health care providers may have inadequate training and insufficient experience to have in-depth sexual discussion with the patient and deal with this problematic issue (Wright & O'Connor 2015). It has been estimated that fewer than 20% of health care providers ask about the sexual activity including enjoyment, difficulties, and frequency (Loeb, Aagaard, Cali, & Lee, 2010). Female sexual dysfunction is better treated with psychological treatment of the patient, and more studies are required for pharmacological treatment.

Causes of Female Sexual Dysfunction

Female sexual dysfunction is an important patient concern that can be ongoing or can occur occasionally. It has been reported that nearly 40% of women have sex related issues in the U.S. and nearly 12% have sexual problems (Shifren, 2013). Female sexual dysfunction may include a number of problems such as absence of sexual desire, inability to arouse the feelings, absence of sexual climax or orgasm, painful intercourse (Wright & O'Connor 2015), or combination of these problems. These problems may arise as a result of physical and/or psychological issues. Physical causes can be the presence of certain biological problems such as diabetes, nerve disorders, heart disease and/or hormonal disturbances. Some medicines can also affect sexual desire and function. Studies have shown that antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), and tricyclics can result in sexual dysfunction (Nurnberg et al., 1999). On the other hand, psychological problems can be stress as well as anxiety. Psychological problems may also include depression and relationship problems. However, occasional problems can occur in sexual functions but long term problems need proper checkup.

Management of Female Sexual Dysfunction

Females may go through the problem of sexual dysfunction at any stage of life. It is important to know the evaluation and management strategies that can help in dealing with the problem of sexual dysfunction. One of the best strategies to deal with the problem is to know the physical aspects of the body. The more a female and her partner know her body, the more they will be able to cope with the problem and find ways to ease sexual difficulties. In order to know more about the body and the problem, it is important to gather as much information as possible. So, a female and her partner can ask their doctor or get help through educational materials to know more about several issues that can affect sex life such as aging, pregnancy, illnesses, menopause, and medicines. It is also important for a female to communicate openly with her partner. Both of them can work together on areas that can improve intimacy and bring them together.

Treatment of Female Sexual Dysfunction

Medical treatment is insufficient
Studies have shown that topical testosterone can help in the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire. However, magnitude of the treatment is small, and there is no long-term safety data. Moreover, studied testosterone replacement preparations have not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Wright & O'Connor 2015). SSRIs, which are commonly used to treat depression and anxiety, can also result in sexual problems. Studies have shown that sexual dysfunction as a result of SSRIs can be treated with the help of bupropion, which is also used to treat depression or stop smoking, or slidenafil, which is helpful in treating erectile dysfunction (Wright & O'Connor 2015). In order to treat atrophic vaginitis, which usually results in pain during intercourse, topical estrogen is effective (Wright & O'Connor 2015).
Before starting a treatment for sexual problem, it is important to address all medical problems, mental health problems, or relationship problems. Usually, pharmacologic therapy is used for those women, who meet diagnostic criteria for a sexual problem or who have distressing problems or who are unable to respond to non-pharmacologic interventions (Shifren, 2013).

Psychological treatment could work better

Researchers have noted that female sexual dysfunction is adversely affected by psychological factors and problems in male sexual activities. So, it has been reported that many cases of female sexual dysfunction can be managed by considering the attitudes and sexual problems of her male partner, i.e. psychological treatment (Shaeer, Shaeer, & Shaeer, 2012).
It can be noted from above mentioned studies that medicinally or pharmacologically it is still difficult to cope with the problem of female sexual dysfunction. So, psychological therapy is best with occasional use of medicines especially for pain.

Concluding Remarks

Sexual problems are often found in women. It can be in different forms usually caused by physical or psychological issues. It is one of the most important issues to consider for normal life of females. Careful evaluation and treatment strategies can help in dealing with this problem. Evaluation can be done by considering all the sex-related issues and other physical as well as psychological aspects of the women, but limited therapeutic options are among the most important challenges for health care providers to deal with female sexual dysfunction. No pharmacologic agent for desire, arousal and/or orgasmic problem has been approved by FDA, probably due to safety problems. So, further studies are required to deal with various issues of female sexual dysfunction and treat them medicinally. Consequently, it can be said that psychological treatment of the female and her sexual partner are essential to deal with the problem of sexual dysfunction.


Loeb, D. F., Aagaard, E. M., Cali, S. R., & Lee, R. S. (2010). Modest impact of a brief curricular intervention on poor documentation of sexual history in university-based resident internal medicine clinics. J Sex Med, 7(10), 3315-3321. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.01883.x
Nurnberg, H. G., Hensley, P. L., Lauriello, J., Parker, L. M., & Keith, S. J. (1999). Sildenafil for Women Patients With Antidepressant-Induced Sexual Dysfunction. Psychiatric Services, 50(8), 1076-1078. doi: 10.1176/ps.50.8.1076
Shaeer, O., Shaeer, K., & Shaeer, E. (2012). The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS): female sexual dysfunction among Internet users in the reproductive age group in the Middle East. J Sex Med, 9(2), 411-424. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02552.x
Shifren, J. L. (2013). Sexual dysfunction in women: Management. Retrieved July 26, 2015, from
Wright, J. J., & O'Connor, K. M. (2015). Female sexual dysfunction. Med Clin North Am, 99(3), 607-628. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2015.01.011

Continue reading 4 Pages

Good Example Of Essay On Does Good Research Sometimes Require That Ethical Issues Be Overlooked?

The Name of the School

Some people argue that to make important advances in clinical and scientific research, sometimes, ethical considerations have to be disregarded. In research, ethical issues are generally thought of as the set of rules that distinguish right from wrong. Ethics can take the form of a generalized rule of thumb, such as the “golden rule,” which says that you should not do to others what you would not like done to yourself; or, ethics can be codes of professional conduct, such as the Hippocratic Oath, which says “First of all, do no harm.” Researchers are usually legally bound to

Continue reading 7 Pages

Good Essay About Freewill And Morality In Education


This paper posits that freewill and morality will have to form the basic framework through which students must be educated. The paper shows that the future of education and the essence of education is to teach students that they have the right to freewill in life, but this comes with responsibilities. Thus, they need to be guided to take the most morally upright decisions. This should be done by teaching students to identify ethical dilemmas and moral ordeals and take the right decisions. There are options of absolute and relativist ethics and this must be mixed appropriately. The paper

Continue reading 8 Pages
Don't Go!
Get -11% Off today for any essay!
Enter a discount code
Order Now