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Essay On Importance of Sleep Quality over Sleep Quantity among College Students

Earlier studies have also reported the correlation between psychological problems (e.g. anxiety and depression) and nightmares, and more recent studies have focused on the correlation between suicidal tendencies and nightmares among adolescents. More particularly, according to Liu (2004), sleeplessness is more widespread in students with higher suicidal tendency, and this pattern is usually attended by frequent nightmares. Nightmares are described as intense dreams characterized by heightened feelings of fear that rouses the person, which normally take place during REM sleep. In a research of individuals experiencing major depression, Agargun and associates (1998) (as cited in Liu, 2004) illustrated that recurrent nightmares are linked to heightened suicidal ideation. Current studies indicate that nightmares are more widespread than initially thought.
Hershner and Chevin (2014) put forth another detrimental impact of sleep quality on psychological wellbeing. They reported that sleep disruption is an important factor which brings about poor sense of worth or self-image, which, in turn, could cause depression. They further conveyed that university experts are more inclined to handle depression as the greatest contributing factor to poor academic outcomes, neglecting the fact that a poor self-image caused by poor sleep quality is major root of depression. Thus, given these gaps in the literature, it is essential to identify the actual fundamental relationship between sleep quality and depression among college students.

Nonetheless, despite the comprehensiveness and validity of the findings about the greater importance of sleep quality over sleep quantity, some researchers claim that proponents of sleep quality did not take into consideration other factors that could influence academic performance among college students. Without taking into account sleep quantity, these researchers argue that it is not possible to draw an accurate conclusion about the actual impact of sleep disorders on the academic performance of college students (Wolfson & Carskadon, 2003). The studies of educators, social scientists, and developmental psychologists in evaluating aspects that focus on disparities in academic performance have emphasized the significance of a more inclusive model than most sleep experts have adopted.
Similarly, other social scientists currently argued that researchers that examine the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral performance of college students have to take into full account of the quantity of sleep on the psychological and physiological health of college students. They argue that sleep quality alone cannot account for the full aspect of the academic performance of college students. For instance, studies have reported that shorter duration of sleep affects the ability of college students to focus during classroom activities and examinations. Lawrence Epstein, a medical professor at Harvard University, argues for the importance of sleep quantity (American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2007, para 3):
Recent studies have shown that adequate sleep is essential to feeling awake and alert, maintaining good health and working at peak performance. After two weeks of sleeping six hours or less a night, students feel as bad and perform as poorly as someone who has gone without sleep for 48 hours. New research also highlights the importance of sleep in learning and memory. Students getting adequate amounts of sleep performed better on memory and motor tasks than did students deprived of sleep.
Several researchers support lengthier sleep for students because brain functions are also dependent on the amount of sleep an individual receives.

All of these contentions are valid and reasonable. It is true that both sleep quality and sleep quantity should be taken into account in the examination of the physical, cognitive, and behavioral performance of college students. Both sleep quality and sleep quantity affect the overall wellbeing of an individual. However, the primacy of sleep quality over sleep quantity has been supported by a fair number of studies. Stenzel (2015) firmly argues that college students should be trained in time management and taught about the importance of quality of sleep. He found out from his study of the impact of sleep quality on college students’ behavior that sleeping longer during weekends or free time does not compensate for the lack of efficient sleep. Deficient sleep quality is harder to recover than inadequate sleep quantity. Hence the argument of this paper stands—there should be a greater emphasis on sleep quality among college students.
In conclusion, there is a certain level of confusion between sleep quality and sleep quantity. Many mistakenly interchange the two. Sleep quantity refers to the quantifiable aspect of sleep, such as duration and amount of sleep, whereas sleep quality refers to the intangible characteristic of sleep such as its efficiency and depth. It is the contention of this paper that sleep quality has a greater influence on the academic performance of college students than sleep quantity. There are three supporting premises for this argument: the greater impact of sleep quality on the cognitive performance of students; on the onset of depression; and, on life satisfaction. Poor quality of sleep adversely affects the learning, memory, and concentration skills of students, while nothing of the sort has been mentioned for sleep quantity. According to several studies, too much sleeping can even impair daytime activities, but there is no such thing as ‘excessive’ sleep quality that could detrimentally affect an individual’s psychological, emotional, and physiological performance.
Depressive symptoms usually occur in individuals who are chronically deprived of quality sleep. Staying awake for a number of hours does not significantly contribute to the onset of depression among college students, but excessive stimulation or repetitive arousal during sleep can significantly affect the ability of an individual to cope with internal and external stressors. And, lastly, the wellbeing and quality of life of students is largely determined by the quality of sleep they obtain. The recuperating and invigorating impact of sleep is simply achieved through efficient sleep. However, not everyone is convinced that sleep quality is more important than sleep quantity. Several professionals from various disciplines still adhere to the idea that the duration and amount of sleep that students get significantly affects their ability to perform well academically. Some support a more balanced view of sleep quality and sleep quantity.

Primary References

American Academy of Sleep Medicine (2007, November 30). College students: getting enough sleep is vital to academic success. Retrieved from http://www.aasmnet.org/articles.aspx?id=659.
Edell-Gustafsson, U. (1999). Sleep, psychological symptoms and quality of life in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Uppsala, Sweden: Linkoping University. https://www.google.com.ph/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCEQFjAAahUKEwin5_Ok_PXGAhULSI4KHUqCAZA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.diva-portal.org%2Fsmash%2Fget%2Fdiva2%3A249227%2FFULLTEXT02.pdf&ei=J1ezVee3GIuQuQTKhIaACQ&usg=AFQjCNFTWpGghxcnvGlMBa3jnItZyM3_FA&sig2=bEsX_hMXMTqE9UfyC2lHdw&bvm=bv.98717601,d.c2E
Galambos, N., Howard, A., & Maggs, J. (2010). Rise and fall of sleep quantity and quality with student experiences across the first year of university. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(2), 342-349.
Gikunda, R. et al. (2014). The effect of sleep quantity on performance of students in public universities, Kenya. Merit Research Journal of Education and Review, 2(6), 113-118. https://www.google.com.ph/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCAQFjAAahUKEwiR6rSX_PXGAhWJjo4KHdk2AmQ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmeritresearchjournals.org%2Fer%2Fcontent%2F2014%2FJune%2FGikunda%2520et%2520al.pdf&ei=C1ezVdG4BomdugTZ7YigBg&usg=AFQjCNEUDQJxV-UTOTxn89xNx8eF8IYVog&sig2=6DMgKt4XXobK1l81KvX5xg&bvm=bv.98717601,d.c2E
Gilbert, S., & Weaver, C. (2010). Sleep quality and academic performance in university students: a wake-up call for college psychologists. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 24, 295-306.
Gruber, R. & Brouillette, R. (2006). Towards an understanding of sleep problems in childhood depression. Sleep, 29(3), 351-358. http://www.journalsleep.org/Articles/290401.pdf
Gunnarsdottir, K. (2014). Effects of poor subjective sleep quality on symptoms of depression and anxiety among adolescents. Thesis Paper for the Department of Psychology, 2-16.
Hershner, S., & Chervin, R. (2014). Causes and consequences of sleepiness among college students. Nature and Science of Sleep NSS, 6, 73-84.
Johansson, A. (2012). Sleep-wake-activity and health-related quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease. Linkoping University Medical Dissertations, 1272, 3-107.
Liu, X. (2004). Sleep and adolescent suicidal behavior. Sleep, 27(7), 1351-1358.
Lowry, M., Dean, K., & Manders, K. (2010). The link between sleep quantity and academic performance for the college student. The University of Minnesota Undergraduate Journal of Psychology, 3, 16-19. http://faculty.oxy.edu/clint/physio/article/TheLinkBetweenSleepQuantityandAcademic.pdf
Pilcher, J., Ginter, D., & Sadowsky, B. (1997). Sleep quality versus sleep quantity: relationships between sleep and measures of health, well-being and sleepiness in college students. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 42(6), 583-596.
Stenzel, J. (2015). Sleep quality and negative associated behaviors of college students: A Cross-Sectional Study. The Spectrum: A Scholars Day Journal, 3(10), 1-11.
Telzer, et al. (2013). The effects of poor quality sleep on brain function and risk taking in adolescence. NeuroImage, 71, 275-283.
Trockel, M., Barnes, M., & Egget, D. (2000). Performance among first-year college students: implications for sleep and other behaviors. Journal of American College Health, 49, 125-131.
Wolfson, A. & Carskadon, M. (2003). Understanding adolescents’ sleep patterns and school performance: a critical appraisal. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 7(6), 491-506.

Secondary References

Agargun, M.Y. et al. (1998). Repetitive and frightening dreams and suicidal behavior in patients with major depression. Comparative Psychiatry, 39, 198-202.
Bertocci, M.A. et al. (2005). Subjective sleep complaints in pediatric depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(11), 1158-66.

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Essay On BMI & Energy Yielding Nutrients

1a) Name and describe sex-specific forms of obesity with regard to body shape. What are the differences, if any, in health risks, associated with each shape?
Answer : There are various forms of obesity that are signified by age, gender and genetic predisposition. The sex-specific forms of obesity include Android obesity and Gynoid obesity. Both are in contrast with each other with respect to human tendency of developing adipose tissue in the body. The Android obesity is signified by fat deposit in "apple-shape" including shoulder, nape of neck, chest in the upper abdomen which is more evident in males than females. On the other hand, gynoid distribution of fat is signified by causing a "pear-shape" fat deposit around the hip, waist and love handles in the lower abdomen. Gynoid obesity is more prevalent in females than males (Insel, Turner & Ross, 2003).
1b) Name and describe three different methods—among the various existing methods—of assessing body fatness (not BMI). What are some of the key strengths and limitations of each method?
Answer: There are many ways of fat assessment that is level of obesity in a body of a specific individual with respect to nutrition assessment, ways other than BMI include;

Skin fold Thickness - This refers to the measurement of fat in the subcutaneous layers of skin. It is measured using calipers by grasping a fold of skin in the caliper teeth. Is an easy and quick way to measure body fat

Inexpensive
Just measures the relative percentage of fat
Requires instrument and some training
Waist to Hip Ratio
This is the ratio of waist and hip measurements; it helps to evaluate fat distribution as well as helps in identification of potential risks to health with respect to level of obesity. Very easy, requires minimal calculation

No training required
Bio Impedance
This is a technical method that involves opposition or impedance of the body against a minimal electrical current that passes through the body. The lean tissue mass in the body acts as a conductor while the fat mass acts as an insulator hence depicting changes in voltage which in turn signify body fat.

Quick method

Measures from legs only thus may be inaccurate
Costly
1c) See the attached body mass index (BMI) growth chart. This graph has been plotted for an individual. What can you describe about this individual (including sex, age, height, weight, BMI, and BMI percentile)? How would you evaluate her or his health risks with regard to BMI percentile? Is there an indication, based on current understanding, for further assessment for this individual?

Answer: The growth chart shows statistical data of a 16 year old boy with weight 160.6 pounds and height 67inches. According to the Harris benedict BMI formula, his BMI calculates to 25.1 kg’s per meter square. The BMI percentile of this individual falls in the 75th percentile. The BMI signifies a trend towards obesity since it is already in the overweight range (Insel, Turner & Ross, 2003).
1d) For the same individual above, what are the known health risks going into adulthood if his or her condition remains unchecked, compared to an individual who doesn't have any of the health risks outlined in 1c? What does the CDC say about this?
Answer: The BMI signifies a tendency of obesity. The individual is already over weight which indicates a further vulnerability to fat related diseases and illnesses including high blood pressure and high blood cholesterol levels. This indication can reiterate the fact and need of further assessment of blood lipid profile and blood pressure to check out the fat and obesity status. CDC suggests close dietary monitoring as the risk of weight gain increases with increased consumption of energy yielding nutrients. Physical activity on regular basis is also advised (Insel, Turner & Ross, 2003).

1e) Select just one of the factors leading to obesity and describe its characteristics, explaining why it may be important in an individual's development of obesity.
Answer: The prime cause of obesity is the lifestyle pattern of the individual. This includes dietary habits as well as the inclusion of physical activity in the routine. Dietary habits based on consumption of energy dense foods, high saturated fat intake and more of junk food that is not nutrient dense leads to fat deposition in the adipose tissue of body (Insel, Turner & Ross, 2003). Similarly, lack of daily physical activity in routine on regular basis also contributes to inability of fat loss, and weigh gain. These factors are extremely important and crucial to an individual's tendency of developing obesity since these are major contributive factors which increase the risk of weight gain drastically.

2. Four specific pathways have been outlined for the metabolism of carbohydrate (glucose). In your own words, list and describe key components / characteristics of each:2a) Glycolysis: The other name for glucose degradation which converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+. This process thus produces free energy which is then used to make high energy compounds like ATP- Adenosine Triphosphate. In simpler words, glycolysis is a non-oxygen dependent metabolic pathway which ensures that energy is provided to the body at all times throughout the day and night (Insel, Turner & Ross, 2003). 2b) Pyruvate to acetyl CoA: Pyruvate is a complex compound that helps the transformation of acetyl Co enzyme A as part of a characteristic phase in the citric acid cycle. It acts as a catalyst to complete the cycle and make energy utilization possible. 2c) Citric acid cycle: This is a successive sequence of reactions chemically taking place in all aerobic i.e. oxygen dependent organisms in order to ensure smooth generation of energy through the oxidation of acetate. This acetate is derived from energy yielding nutrients such as proteins, fats and carbohydrates into chemical energy. 2d) Electron transport chain: An Electron Transport Chain, also known as ETC is a successive sequence of reactions chemically taking place through compounds that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron receivers. This process takes place through redox reactions with the help of a membrane creating an electrochemical gradient of protons. Eventually it reaches molecular oxygen to complete the process
2e) In sports/fitness nutrition, what is meant by carbohydrate loading? When is considered useful, if at all? Give an example.

Answer: Carbohydrate also known as the Carb-Loading is usually used by sport men and endurance building athletes. It helps them in maximizing the energy stored in muscles. This stored form energy called glycogen found in liver as well as muscles is maximized by consumption of low glycemic index foods that slowly release glucose in the blood without causing disturbance in the serum glucose level. An example is an athlete consuming large meals in diet including fruits, vegetables and whole grains a day before his race so that he can 'load' his carbohydrate store for the upcoming exertion in marathon (Insel, Turner & Ross, 2003).

Question 3: Please provide a detailed explanation of how the body derives energy from the fat at cellular level? List the key steps (e.g. Beta-Oxidation), the part of cell in which the reaction occurs. What is meant by term ‘lipo-genesis’?
The body derives its energy from fats in the form of fatty acids, as they are stored as triglycerides. Fatty acids are both reduced and anhydrous, giving energy to the body. The fatty acids are found in the form of molecules that are water free. One gram of fatty acid generates 9kcal of energy as compared to 4kcal energy from a gram of carbohydrates. Lipases carry out the lipolysis and then the fatty acids are freed from the glycerol. The free fatty acids can easily enter into blood stream and provide energy to the body. The next step involves Beta-Oxidation, in which the long carbon chains of the fatty acid are broken down into acetyl CoA, enabling the latter enter the TCA cycle. This process takes place in ‘mitochondria’ of the cell. Lipogenesis means such a process that converts acetyl-CoA to fatty acids. This is a stage where the energy is stored in the form of fats, as in acetyl-CoA, energy is present in the form of sugars only. Triglyceride synthesis is an integral part of lipogenesis.

REFERENCES

Insel, P., Turner, R., & Ross, D. (2003). Discovering nutrition. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

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Timeline of Human Prehistory: Research Paper Sample on the Paleolithic Age

The research sample paper below is a great pillar for those students who specialize in human prehistory and the first civilizations. It starts from describing the general state of affairs in the infancy of mankind by answering questions like "When did the Paleolithic era begin?", "What hominid species existed at that time?", "What was the climate and how did it affect the migration process of the first people?" Thanks to reading this paper, you have a chance to see with your very eyes how much effort it takes to craft a worthy research paper. Yeah, and mind that on this page, you'll see JUST ONE part of the entire work (there are THREE MORE PARTS). If the perspective of birth pangs of such a mammoth piece still leaves you undaunted – all sails to the wind and full ahead! Alternatively, you can turn to the external help of professional history essay writer who will protect you from stress, save your time, and deliver a high-quality paper right when you need it.

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