Cultural expectations and meaning laden the tendency of giving a gift to another person. In fact, western culture debates the fact that gifts lack an attachment in the future where the recipient has an obligation to reciprocate and emulate the actions of the person who gave the gift in the first place. The assertion in western culture and many other cultures around the world is that gifts are symbolic of sincere appreciation and gratitude in light of the varying relationships that people have. In fact, the culture of giving and receiving gifts began early in the history of intercultural
Essays about Culture.
Anthropology: The Action Of Giving A Gift Essay Sample
When Was the Upper Paleolithic Era and What Are Its Main Features
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Example Of Globalization – Module 5 Essay
Globalization has revolutionized the way contemporary civilizations operate. Passaris (2006) defines globalization as a “global integration of economies through trade and investment flows” with the aim of promoting “international competitiveness” (par. 6). While drivers such as trade agreements and migration triggered the onset of globalization, the advent of the internet gave this concept a tremendous boost. First, it has facilitated the flow of information across geographical boundaries. As a result, people can quickly exchange ideas, knowledge, innovations, and skills to promote economic, social, and political development. Secondly, the social networks on the internet provide communication platforms that cut across
Essay About IKEA and Its Success
Where other global businesses falter, IKEA succeeds. Founded 76 years ago in a small Sweden town, Almhult, the company has become the world’s largest furniture retailer. IKEA’s business model and well-designed home products have been replicated globally en masse. The company’s largest market is Germany, followed by the US, France, the UK, and China. This college essay on IKEA can be viewed as a case study of service excellence, and, consequently, commercial success. After a brief introduction to the company’s history, several questions will be tackled the most salient of which is the following: is IKEA’s success a function of marketing, culture, or human resources? It will be argued that the behemoth of furniture shopping has made multiple successful forays into the global market due to its insistence on the promotion of Swedish culture. The idea of the proud little nation with admirable work life balance and inimitable wholesomeness appeals to consumers around the world. For this reason, IKEA stores are regarded by customers as spaces of acculturation rather than manifestations of corporate greed writ large.
Essay On IKEA’s Response to Global Challenges
The contemporary globalized environment poses numerous challenges for business to achieve success. In this regard, various dimensions of globalization become more and more entwined and companies need to adapt to these changes. One of the most complex aspects is the socio-cultural dimension which requires systematic and multi-stakeholder involvement. The aim of this paper is to address the case of IKEA and its approach to resolving the issue of child labor used by its suppliers in India. Consequently, the rationale for IKEA’s approach is outlined with further implications for the company and global businesses in general. IKEA’s case demonstrates the new trends in globalization and business conduct which require multi-dimensional cooperation towards the sustainable development as a precondition for the successful business performance of a company. From the perspective of the local population, the primary benefit is long-term commitments of the international corporations and the consequent stability of the local socio-cultural development and economic growth.
Key words: IKEA, child labor, globalization, corporate responsibility.
IKEA’s Response to Global Challenges
In the contemporary globalized and internationalized world, of the company to achieve success it has to address numerous issues except the quality and cost-efficiency of its production. To achieve success, a company has to consider diverse political and cultural aspects of its business conduct and manufacturing of the final products. Although this concern becomes essential in the contemporary business environment, it can be incredibly challenging to fulfill monitoring across various branches located in around the word. On the other hand, in order to preserve a successful and continuous profile, the company has to make sure that its profile is integral across all branches and cooperation with suppliers corresponds to its profile and values. The aim of this paper is to address the issues of globalization and continuity of company’s profile in the example of IKEA and its child labor issue in India.
Although globalization poses numerous economic benefits for a business to expand, optimize its manufacturing capacities in the third world, and reduce cost of the final product, globalization also has numerous threats and challenges that company has to deal with and develop a consistent approach within its strategy (Smith, 2010). In this regard, a company also has to address such dimensions of globalization as political, cultural and ecological. In other words, having a strong public profile in the country of origin is no longer enough for one’s success. The company also has to demonstrate the consistency of its public profile on the global scale. In other words, the company has to abide by the rules and public perceptions of the country of its origin or according to the international standards also in other countries in order not to damage its image (Spinello, 2014).
IKEA had a negative experience of being criticized for some of its carpet supplier from India using child labor in carpets production. The company faced with cultural and political-legal challenges posed by globalization. Moreover, unlike nowadays, when a company has various cases and strategies to follow in resolving such issues, IKEA faced the problem when the issue of child labor was quite new in the business environment and consequent options for its handling were limited (Smith, 2010). In this regard, the available options branch manager Marianna Barner could choose from included cancelling contract with suppliers, withdrawing from the market or addressing the issue in some way. The first two options would mean financial losses, while the last one had very little certainty in its application (Spinello, 2014). On the other hand, the issue could not be ignored since media programs on the subject had already damaged company’s image before.
The primary threat of such issues on the global scale is that the national image of the company can be easily damaged and its core values challenged. For IKEA that placed equal access to its products across various categories of society, equality and humanness were the core of its philosophy. Moreover, the relationship with suppliers was based on the crucial principle of using sources in an unconventional way. Thus, giving up on suppliers would have been damage to that principle and could result in further deterioration of relations with other existing suppliers (Vogel, 2006).
The most functional resolution of the issue is to preserve company’s presence in the country and continue doing business but in a new way. In this regard, the company would have to develop its own way of dealing with the matter in accordance with the international law and company’s concept and values. Barner did the right choice of getting involved with the national and international organizations dealing with the issue of child labor. This gave her and the company the relevant knowledge of the issue and related aspects such as age differences of children allowed working in different countries, local legislature, a relationship between child labor and schooling (Spinello, 2014). In this context, IKEA created a precedent how other companies have to deal with similar issues – promoting the higher standards through cooperation with the local NGOs, international organizations and local suppliers:
organization promoting the well-being of children. Together with UNICEF experts,
local governments and NGOs, IKEA started an ambitious and large-scale project
aimed at improving education, recruiting for schools and raising awareness among
parents that education is important for their children. In order to decrease
dependency on child labor, a microcredit program was started mainly aimed at
strengthening the economic position of women” (Jeurissen, 2007, p. 135).
Moreover, as part of this response, the company introduced zero-tolerance policy regarding suppliers using child labor. For these purposes, monitoring workshops with suppliers in the target countries were introduced and strict rules were imposed. If the instance of child labor was found and not resolved, IKEA would cancel a contract with its supplier and would not conduct business with the anymore (Vogel, 2006).
IKEA’s solution of the issue is incredibly functional in dealing with various dimensions of globalization. It is three-fold in its nature. First of all, the company preserved its image and projected its values on the global scale. Secondly, it demonstrated the Western public that it follows the same standards in all countries were its conducts business, thus the company kept its customers. Finally, IKEA as an international company demonstrated its long-term commitments in the various foreign markets and moreover responsibilities with the local communities (Smith, 2010).
The last aspect is particularly essential since there is a tendency in the global business to demonstrate long-term commitments to the local communities rather than simple gaining profit schemes. In this regard, international companies accept the tendency of merging of different global dimensions and corporate responsibility in terms of development of the local communities (Vogel, 2006). The main benefit for the companies is that they build a functional relationship with the local people and also contribute to the improvement of the sustainable development of these communities. In a long-term perspective, these communities will become more functional labor force with desired skills and also future consumers of the companies’ products.
Stakeholder dialogue and co-operation are important ways for business to shape
their social responsibility, since businesses are often partially responsible for causing
a social problem. However, business cannot solve problems by themselves they did
not cause by themselves, so it is important to seek collaboration with others. An
important mechanism within these partnerships is that different parties can mutually
influence the conditions of their performance” (Jeurissen, 2007, p. 135).
Thus, the essence of IKEA’s response to the child labor issue with its suppliers was to take on board as many stakeholders as possible in order to address the issue in the most systematic and functional manner. A similar approach was taken by Marriott International that placed the cultural differences and traditions in the heart of its global strategy (Spinello, 2014). In this regard, cooperation with various stakeholders aimed at improvement of life through work with Marriott International made it one of the most desired working places in the hospitality business (Vogel, 2006).
Overall, from all mentioned above it can be concluded that with the strengthening of global trends, companies have to pay more attention to their socio-cultural commitments in the communities they do business in. IKEA’s approach was in involving numerous stakeholders and treating the issue in its systematic and contextual complexity. IKEA’s approach became a precedent in the field of child labor and an example to follow by many international companies.
Jeurissen, R. (2007). Ethics & Business. Assen: Royal Van Gorcum.
Smith, C. (2010). Global Challenges in responsible Business. Cambridge: Cambridge
Spinello, R. (2014). Global Capitalism, Culture, and Ethics. New York, NY: Routledge.
Vogel, D. (2006). The Market for Virtue: The Potential and Limitations of Corporate Social
responsibility. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
Good Research Paper On The Name Of The Topic: Economics: The 500 Company – SWOT And Domestic Economic Growth
Fortune 500 companies are the top 500 companies in the US which are listed by Fortune magazine every year. The companies are generally ranked on the basis of their gross revenue (Fortune 500). The Fortune magazine started to enlist these 500 best company in 1955 for the first time. The concept of selecting best 500 American companies was first created by Edgar Smith, the editor of Fortune 500. In these 500 best companies, the top companies are Wal-Mart Stores, Exxon Mobil, Chevron, Berkshire Hathaway, and Apple (Fortune 500)
The company chosen for this research paper is Disney. Fortune
Essay On Religious Studies
A Reflection on Scientology
The Church of Scientology did not begin as a religion but as a mental health therapeutic theory called Dianetics, which the accompanying book, Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health, came off the press in 9 May 1950, from a science fiction author named Lafayette Ronald Hubbard (1911-1986), or L. Ron Hubbard (DeChant and Jorgensen 304). The Hubbard Association of Scientologists was established in 1952 (305). It was a new religious movement, with its tax-free claim over revenues, which the American society came to view as a religious cult (Blythe 2). However, as far as the U.S. Internal Revenue Service was concerned, it was a ‘for profit’ business and not a non-profit religious organization. So for three years battle with the federal government raged on as Scientology instituted adaptive measures, such as publishing new prayer books, using cross symbols in their meeting places, etc. And, they won with the federal government recognizing it as a tax-exempt religious organization (3). Only four years later in 1954 that the first church of Scientology was founded in Los Angeles. The Church of Scientology as a recognized religion was finally born. However, according to Eugene Methvin, the primary intension is based on the understanding that establishing a religion as where the money is (Methvin 1). This reflective essay aims to understand the major religious tenets of Scientology, its concept of God and of the human relationship with God, its current historical developments, and its cultural stand on positive social change and human equality.
Major Tenets, Doctrines, and Dogmas
The Thetanian Mythology: Scientology teaches that the “theta” is the cosmic force and source of life and “thetans” as the individualized expression of theta (DeChant and Jorgensen 307). Thetan is the true identity of mankind: intrinsically good, omniscient, omni-creative, and immaterial (308). Thus, humans as thetans are pure spirits, immortal, and god. The story goes that, in the primordial past, the thetans the physical MEST universe. However, over time, the thetans came to identify and got enmeshed with the MEST and forgot their true Thetanian identity as well as their powers (309). Consequently, the thetans became trapped in the MEST to such extent they even failed to realize that they are thetans, believing that they are mere physical beings. Because they are immortals, as their bodies deteriorate to death, thetans are repeatedly reborn into the MEST until salvation intervenes. Each lifetime is stored in the thetan’s “reactive mind” (similar to the Freudian “unconscious mind”) as “engrams” (images). These engrams accumulate in the reactive mind each lifetime, moving the thetan further and further away from realizing his true spiritual identity. The objective of Scientology is to save the thetan and restore his awareness to his true spiritual identity.
The ARC Triangle: For salvation to occur, the thetan should acquire a special knowledge that allows him to understand the basic workings of the MEST universe (310). This knowledge is fully embodied in the ARC Triangle. The triangle consists of three interdependent concepts: affinity (degree of affection; the emotional state), reality (agreement of what truly exists), and communication (interchange of ideas). Communication is believed the most important element in the ARC Triangle. Human survival problems have their roots in ineffective communication (311).
The Bridge to Freedom: The concept of the Bridge constitutes the religious means whereby the mastery of the ARC Triangle is achieved. It has dual components: “Training” (religious education) and “Processing” (personal spiritual development). Both components increase spiritual awareness. The first discipline (the Training) frees the thetan from the limitations of the MEST universe. The second discipline (the Processing) restores to the theta all lost or forgotten powers of godhood. Each advance in spiritual awareness moves the thetan into higher levels of mastery of the ARC Triangle. The thetan progresses from the “PreClear” state (the bound state) to the “Clear” state (the state freed from engrams) (312). Thetans in Clear state are ready to start reacquiring their lost powers (313). The final stage is the “Operating Thetan (OT)” state wherein the thetan is learning to harness his analytical mind (instead of the reactive mind) to gain mastery over the MEST. The OT who has successfully functioned under the eight dynamics of existence acquires total spiritual freedom, including the freedom from the endless cycles of birth-death-rebirth, and starts to take on greater and greater cosmic responsibility (314). Scientology aims to “clear” the planet and restore mankind to its true Thetanian identity.
The Eight Dynamics: Scientology believes in the basic command of life, which is “Survive!” This imperative is divided into eight compartments called dynamics (meaning, “urge,” “drive,” or “impulse”) that are used to inspect and understand a person’s life.
(A) First Dynamic, SELF: This refers to the basic drive to survive as an individual and to be an individual with a personal body and mind. It aims to fully express individuality.
(B) Second Dynamic, CREATIVITY: This refers to the impulse to make (“create”) things for the future or survive through a small unit. It includes the establishment of a family unit, raising children, sex, and other family activity.
(C) Third Dynamic, GROUP SURVIVAL: This refers to the urge to survive through a larger group of individuals outside the family, such as a community, friends, a social lodge, a state or nation, a race, and the like.
(D) Fourth Dynamic, SPECIES: This refers to the urge toward survival through all mankind and as all mankind, encompassing all men and women.
(E) Fifth Dynamic, LIFE FORMS: This refers to the urge to survive as life forms and with the help of other life forms (e.g. animals, birds, insects, fish, vegetation, and all other living things).
(F) Sixth Dynamic, PHYSICAL UNIVERSE: This refers to the urge to survive of the four components of the physical universe: matter, energy, space, and time.
(G) Seventh Dynamic, SPIRITUAL DYNAMIC: This refers to the urge to survive as spiritual beings and anything spiritual; the ability to destroy or pretend to be destroyed. It involves the survival of the life source itself, which the seventh dynamic is.
(H) Eight Dynamic, INFINITY: This refers to the urge to the existence as Infinity, to actually embrace the all-ness of all, comparative with the concepts of God, the Supreme Being or Creator.
The Concept of God
The concept of God in Scientology refers to the concept of the Eight Dynamic (Infinity) (“Does Scientology Have a Concept of God?” n. p.). This dynamic refers to the urge towards the existence as Infinity or as God, the Supreme Being or Creator. Thus, God for Scientologists is not a person or an entity but an urge towards or of Infinity. In fact, in this concept of God, it is the human or the thetan who achieved the Eight Dynamics who becomes God himself (“The Eight Dynamics” n. p.). Its concept of God is the human becoming God. But, unlike Christianity wherein the God-Man came to pay for the salvation of mankind, the Scientologist ‘Infinity’ became human because he became bounded to the MEST he created. Thus, the Scientologist ‘god’ made a mistake and became human. He mistakenly lost his thetan-hood or godhood. Thus, achieving the Eight Dynamic is simply reclaiming that godhood once more.
In essence, its concept of the Eight Dynamic is similar to the Mormonist doctrine of ‘celestial progression’ wherein the spouses themselves can become god. There are many differences though between these two religions. First, while Scientology contented itself with achieving only the peak of thetan-hood, the Infinity, Mormonism goes beyond becoming the God the Father to becoming even the Father of the God the Father, and logically in a quite similar sense, having God the Grandfather or a God ancestry (Smith 613-614). Scientology is not clear about the social side of godhood as the Mormons are. Second, the Scientologist concept of becoming human is a humanization by mistake or assimilation to the MEST (the created universe); while Mormonists look at humanization and dying as a prerequisite to godhood.
As far away from the Christian concept of God as the Mormons, Scientologists need more creative and science fictionist thinking for their concept of God to get near to the Christian God because the chasm of differences is just so wide and deep to be bridgeable. As a point of fact, though, neither concept of God contradicts the Christian concept of God; and thus not of an authentic Christian religion.
The Concept of Personal Relationship with God
Unlike the Christian concept of a personal relation of man with God, the Scientologist concept of that relationship is practically nothing because its doctrine on the Eight Dynamics simply insists that the thetan (freed and infinite human) is god himself. Thus, in essence, the Scientologist concept of the ‘God-man’ relationship is a ‘Self-self’ relationship. Since the thetan (human) is himself god his relationship with god is a relationship to himself. Thus, while the relationship between a Christian and God is a relationship between a child and the Father, the Scientologist relationship with god is essentially a self-directed relationship if such can be called a relationship at all.
Some Historical Developments
Scientific Uproar: Less a year after the publication of Hubbard’s Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health in 1950, which claimed that Dianetics was based on careful research, the medical and psychiatric associations in America demanded that Hubbard submit to the American Medical Association and the American Psychological Association a copy or copies of his research on the ‘new’ mental health therapy; and when he failed to do so, recommended that the use of Dianetics be confined to the research milieu (Freeman 19).
The “Fair Game” Policy: An HCO Policy Letter signed by Hubbard on 18 October 1967 ordered an action called “Fair Game” against Scientology “ENEMY”, referred to as “SP” (Suppressive Person, or critic), which involved deprivation of property or injury by any means, or be tricked, sued, lied to, or destroyed (“Fair Game” n. p.). A year later, on 21 October 1968, another HCO Policy Letter came off cancelling the “Fair Game” policy as entry of its ethics code while affirming the same practice to continue.
Practice of Medicine without License: Scientology received a suit in 1995 for non-licensed practice of medicine after the death of Lisa McPherson under psychiatric treatment by the church for 17 days at Fort Harrison (Farley n. p.). Churchmen removed her, against the doctor’s advice, from the care of Morton Plan Hospital where she volunteered admission. Her condition deteriorated under Scientology care and died on arrival at a 45-minute drive hospital outside the Fort. The death suit was settled in 2004.
Cultural Position on Positive Social Change and Human Equality
Scientology is an exclusive and secretive religious organization with its own distinct sets of cultural features. It has its own exclusive dictionary of terms (e.g. “thetan,” “clear,” “MEST,” or “auditing”), calendar of holidays (e.g. “Auditor’s Day”), and locations of great religious significance (e.g. Hubbard’s Saint Hill Manor in England; Church of Scientology Flag Service Organization in Florida) (Pentikainen and Pentikainen 10). Social change is often viewed in the context of the internal lifestyle of its members and through its central process of “auditing” as the primary, if not sole, means of personal and social change. Its aim is always to progress from the First Dynamic to the Eight Dynamic, a process that even goes beyond the context of human society and into celestial, or perhaps extra-terrestrial, society.
Towards the society outside Scientology, its Association for Better Living and Education (ABLE) has offered its auditing services, such as Narconon (to combat drug addiction), Criminon (for criminal reform), and Applied Scholastics (for Scientology scientific education), to schools, businesses, and community groups as secular approaches for social betterment without demand or expectation for membership (DeChant and Jorgensen 299). In essence, its approach to social change is interventional using the Scientologist processes in achieving social change and often under the cultural environment of Scientology.
Moreover, its concept of human equality goes beyond the issue of gender and racial color. It operates within the assumption of equality between thetans whose racial or gender characteristics are out of question and rarely an issue (DeChant and Jorgensen 325). Although, it attempted to somehow conform to secular requirements of non-discrimination by trying to improve its organizational gender ratio, Scientology admitted that a large number of advanced members are largely males.
Furthermore, the behavior of Scientology members is strictly governed by its ‘technology of ethics’, which is founded on discipline, justice, and honor (Pentikainen and Pentikainen 10). An individual can be trusted with ethics but not with justice, which only the organization can administer. It teaches, however, that if ethics are well in place, justice is often unnecessary. In addition, ethics is about “integrity and honesty and doing what is right” (“Improving Conditions in Life”).
Compared to the Christian Beatitudes as quoted in the Gospel of Matthew, chapter 5, verses 2-10 and expounded in Jesus’ Sermon on the Mount from verses 11 to 48 (Jones NT 20-21), the Scientologist ‘technology of ethics’ has superficial similarities and dissimilarities (of course, a better comparison will be achieve with access to its full ethical codes, which is not possible unless to members). Both codes agreed in the importance they give on being happy (verses 2-10), doing what is right (verse 6), being peacemakers (verse 9), and getting involved in the cause of right (verse 10).
However, while the direction of the Scientologist ethics is towards happiness, prosperity, and survival, the essence of the Beatitudes revolves around poverty and deprivation, gentleness and peacemaking, compassion and mercy, and happiness in persecution. In many areas, except for happiness, both viewpoints contrast each other: Scientologist ‘prosperity’ vs. Christian ‘poverty’; ‘survival’ vs. ‘gentleness and peacemaking, compassion and mercy, and happiness in persecution’. In fact, its focus on survival both governs the centrality of their doctrine of the Eight Dynamics and their historically vicious behavior against critics (DeChant and Jorgensen 330). While the essence of the Sermon of the Mount highlighted an imitation of the sacrificial nature of Christ’s spirituality, the essence of Scientology is survival, of the fittest if you may, an urge towards life not death.
The general concept of life between Christianity and Scientology in the sense of finding and keeping it similarly points to ‘eternity’ in Christianity or ‘infinity’ in Scientology. Both terms are essentially comparable and interchangeable as eternity is essentially infinity and vice versa. However, the approach towards this eternity or infinity diverged in an opposite direction, conditioned by the divergence of their theology. Where Christianity proposed the path of sacrificial death in obedience to the will of God, the Scientologist path insists on not dying (that is, on survival) and instead being transformed into a god (thetan) with physical life intact. It is, however, unclear how Scientologists justify the death of its founder Hubbard as a proof of survival. There is a clear pitfall in justifying Hubbard’s death as an interpretation of reaching the Seventh or Eight Dynamic because it will have an implication that death by suicide may be justified to reach the last two highest Dynamic.
Lessons from the history and teachings of Scientology are something that seekers of religion need to ponder deeply with eyes widely open. Being a cultural phenomenon, religion involves and thrives through the strong emotions of its members. Once a passionate part, a person tends to evaluate the religion based on emotional parameters, instead of objective grounds. From the perspective of the unreligious Scientology promises a powerful religion, which can transform mortal men into immortal gods. It is the ‘best’ of what science and religion can offer. However, to those who are serious in the spirituality, such as Christians, the contrast between its doctrines with that of Christ can easily give an impression of science fictionist tone in the theories proposed, not to mention the primal passion for survival often at the cost of its opponents. The guarantee of safety and authenticity of religion, however, can only be gleaned upon its stability and soundness of doctrine through time, not by rhetoric or even science.
“Does Scientology Have a Concept of God?” Scientology. Web. 27 July 2015
“Fair Game.” Xenu. Web. 27 July 2015. <http://www.xenu.net/archive/disk/fairgame.htm>
“Improving Conditions in Life.” Scientology Handbook. Web. 27 July 2015.
“The Eight Dynamics.” Scientology. Web. 27 July 2015 <http://www.scientology.org/what-is-
Blythe, Christopher James. “Hugh B. Urban: The Church of Scientology: A History of a New
Religion.” 49th Parallel Autumn 2012, 30(1): 1ff. PDF file.
DeChant, Dell and Danny L. Jorgensen. Chapter 14: The Church of Scientology: A Very New
American Religion. World Religions in America: An Introduction. 4th Ed. Ed. Jacob Neusner. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2003. 293-312. Print.
Farley, Robert. “Scientologists Settle Death Suit.” St. Petersburg Times 29 May 2004. Web. 27
July 2015. <http://www.sptimes.com/2004/05/29/Tampabay/Scientologists_settle.shtml>
Freeman, Lucy. “Psychologists Act against Dianetics.” The New York Times 9 September 1950:
Jones, Alexander. The Jerusalem Bible. London and New York: Darton, Longman & Todd and
Doubleday & Company, 1966. Print.
Methvin, Eugene M. “Scientology: Anatomy of a Frightening Cult.” Reader’s Digest [Reprint]
May 1980: 1-6. Print.
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Freedom Publishing, 1996. PDF file.
Smith, Joseph. “Discourse at Nauvoo, IL”. Times and Seasons 15 August 1844, 5(15): 612-617.
Example Of Essay On The Role Of Binary Oppositions In Food
The current research is focused on the theme of food classification and the application of binary opposition system to the current issues and its strengths and weaknesses. Binary opposition is known as the specific concept that uses two related terms that are opposite in their meanings to demonstrate the contrast between the two sides of each concept. Every culture has a specific system of principles that is used to classify the food in order to regulate its intake. One of the most interesting aspects of food regulating process is the usage of binary opposition system. These classifications usually include