Cultural expectations and meaning laden the tendency of giving a gift to another person. In fact, western culture debates the fact that gifts lack an attachment in the future where the recipient has an obligation to reciprocate and emulate the actions of the person who gave the gift in the first place. The assertion in western culture and many other cultures around the world is that gifts are symbolic of sincere appreciation and gratitude in light of the varying relationships that people have. In fact, the culture of giving and receiving gifts began early in the history of intercultural
Essays about Significance
Anthropology: The Action Of Giving A Gift Essay Sample
Good Research Paper About Cyber Assaults And Financial Losses. Statistical Examination Of The Exaggerated Business Myth
I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 2
A. Purpose 2
B. Introduction 2
C. Problem Statement 5
D. Essential Research Questions 6
II. RESEARCH DESIGN AND DATA COLLECTION 7
A. Research Methodology 7
B. Statistical Tests 8
III. ANALYSIS 8
C. Test for the Correlation Coefficient of the Medium Sized Companies for Data Breaches and Associated Financial Impact. 10
D. Test for the Correlation Coefficient of the Large Sized Companies for Data Breaches and Associated Financial Impact 10
IV. CONCLUSION 11
Works Cited 12
This statistical research report has been completed to explore the validity of claims that the use of cloud computing technologies may potentially make the
Example Of The Complexity Of Genetically Modified Organisms Research Paper
In the contemporary society, there are various issues that tend to be very controversial yet essential for human existence. One of such issues is related to genetically modified organism (GMO) that is used in food production. GMOs are the organisms that were altered through genetic engineering for the improvement of their qualities and consequent different use in the human life. They are often used for food and industrial purposes. The aim of this paper is to explore the issue of genetically modified organisms from the contemporary perspective and outline their pros and cons. In this regard, attention is paid
Essay On Evaluation Of Doctoral Study
In this particular scholarly paper, it is needed to evaluate the crisis in sports and its impact on the parties engaged in the sports. Critically, it can be stated that the implementation of crisis management in the sports and the public relations tactics needed to be explained simultaneously. In case of doctoral studies of the stated problem, one need to follow many steps to deliver a standard paper helpful for the research work (Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya et al., 2013). It is vital to know the known parameters related to subject to evaluate a thorough investigation of the problem. As per the requirement the research questions and theoretical framework have to be worked out to find the best possible results.
Crisis management and public relations tactics can be considered as two of the most important factors to be countered in sports. One has to understand, how these two factors are directly related to the sports. People attached to the games might find some situation that can lead to an unknown crisis. At this very point in time, the essentiality of crisis management needs to become out of the frame (Al-abed, Tamil & Al-Dubai, 2012). At some point knowledge of public relation can be considered as highly valuable as tactics regarding public relation may come handy to control the crisis on and off the field. Communication is the key to success in crisis management (Dekker, 2007). On the other hand, it needs to be mentioned that commonly in a field of sports some relations can be built around the places within the players, the governing body and even with the fans. The trust and believe to each human relation is very important in such cases. For a famous sports personality, it is the fans that made some sportsman a popular person. So it is the responsibility of the sports person to protect his public image (Al-Qudah, 2009). The main point of the topic is to understand how the knowledge of public relations can effectively act in crisis management. Lack of public relations tactics among the management can be considered as a serious problem, and it is essential to find why management and sports authorities pay less attention to this very topic. Therefore, it is important to consider serious research among the public those are involved in the sports to find out the results (Harkke, 2006). The methodology can be considered as one of the most important tools to make effective data collection regarding the topic.
Considering the factors involved in the process, one of the major purposes of the study is to find out how the knowledge of crisis management and public relations tactics effectiveness in every sport. In case of effective communication, the paper will be designed in the way to make out the importance of communication as a public relations management tactic. Identically it is very obvious to know how effectively these parameters can be used to control any crisis (Mizanur Rahman, Mamun, Delwar Hossain & Kante, 2005). Finally a comparison of the moves needed to be explained by evaluating the central research question is given below theoretically (Hung, Altschuld & Lee, 2008). As this a doctoral research paper, purpose statement can define the path to be followed to achieve the preferred target.
Central Research Questions
The central research questions of the paper have been presented below on the basis of which the commencement of the project has to be done. Questions are prepared for the purpose of quantitative analysis.
What is the main motive of acquiring the knowledge of crisis management and public relations tactics?
According to you, to what scale the knowledge of crisis management and public relations tactics are helpful in the sports?
Rate importance of public relations tactics in sports.
How the management and sport’s governing body can come into the frame in order to improve the situation?
Note: In case of scale rating, rate from 1 to 5.
The conceptual framework of a doctoral study paper is a very important part to be considered as it will define the success of the research paper. After defining the research problem, it is important to follow the theoretical framework to complete the research paper. After assessing the problem a theoretical rationality is needed to be established (Onuminya, 2006). Now in this section, a pointwise theoretical viewpoint is needed to be presented that disclose the professional authenticity on the basis of which the research has to be concluded (Ostriker, Kuh & Voytuk, 2003). Afterward, the research design and implementation of the research outline have to be organized in such a way that the most effective outcome can be achieved. The research frames and the research questions must be mapped to get the effective results (Säfsten, 2002). At the end, the conceptual conclusion needed to be drawn to produce the outcome of the research work. In case of games and sports a project that puts emphasis on crisis management and public relations, it is essential to predict the outcome of research questions. It must be answered by people attached to the high level of management in sports clubs and sectors. Statistical analysis of the given answers as a quantitative proof can successfully provide the targeted result. That is why prompt conceptual framework has been needed to complete the job as presented above.
Significance of Study
In the last segment of the research paper, it is essential to present the significance of the conceptual work on the basis of data available. By completing critical analysis of the given data, one can verify how rationale it is to acquire the knowledge of crisis management and public relations tactics. Conclusive evidence and supportive theories will certainly back the research outcome to make a solid conclusion about the effective use of knowledge of crisis management and public relations tactics. The process to apply the method can also be revealed successfully after completion of the research study. The evaluation of the project can be successfully done by verifying quantitative data. It is eminent to put a value on public relations tactics to tackle crisis management in any sports considering factors controlling circumstances.
Al-abed, A., Tamil, A., & Al-Dubai, S. (2012). Case control study on risk factors associated with esophageal cancer in Yemen. BMC Public Health, 12(Suppl 2), A11. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-s2-a11
Al-Qudah, H. (2009). Evaluating the Position of Active Public Relation Office at Private Jordanian Hospitals from Internal Personnel Perspective: Analytical Study. Eco, 23(2), 99-139. doi:10.4197/eco.23-2.5
Dekker, J. (2007). Zion's rock-solid foundations. Leiden: Brill.
Harkke, V. (2006). Knowledge freedom for medical professionals. Åbo: Åbo Akademi University Press.
Hung, H., Altschuld, J., & Lee, Y. (2008). Methodological and conceptual issues confronting a cross-country Delphi study of educational program evaluation. Evaluation And Program Planning,31(2), 191-198. doi:10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2008.02.005
Mizanur Rahman, M., Mamun, A., Delwar Hossain, M., & Kante, M. (2005). Peptic ulcer perforation: management of high-risk cases by percutaneous abdominal drainage. Trop Doct, 35(1), 30-31. doi:10.1258/0049475053001822
Onuminya, J. (2006). A prospective evaluation of the diagnostic value of sinus specimen cultures in chronic osteomyelitis. Trop Doct, 36(1), 38-39. doi:10.1258/004947506775599003
Ostriker, J., Kuh, C., & Voytuk, J. (2003). Assessing research-doctorate programs. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.
Säfsten, K. (2002). Evaluation of assembly systems.
Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O., Lychagov, V., Bibikova, O., Semyachkin-Glushkovskiy, I., Sindeev, S., & Zinchenko, E. et al. (2013). The experimental study of stress-related pathological changes in cerebral venous blood flow in newborn rats assessed by doct. Journal Of Innovative Optical Health Sciences, 06(03), 1350023. doi:10.1142/s1793545813500235
Essay On Importance of Sleep Quality over Sleep Quantity among College Students
Earlier studies have also reported the correlation between psychological problems (e.g. anxiety and depression) and nightmares, and more recent studies have focused on the correlation between suicidal tendencies and nightmares among adolescents. More particularly, according to Liu (2004), sleeplessness is more widespread in students with higher suicidal tendency, and this pattern is usually attended by frequent nightmares. Nightmares are described as intense dreams characterized by heightened feelings of fear that rouses the person, which normally take place during REM sleep. In a research of individuals experiencing major depression, Agargun and associates (1998) (as cited in Liu, 2004) illustrated that recurrent nightmares are linked to heightened suicidal ideation. Current studies indicate that nightmares are more widespread than initially thought.
Hershner and Chevin (2014) put forth another detrimental impact of sleep quality on psychological wellbeing. They reported that sleep disruption is an important factor which brings about poor sense of worth or self-image, which, in turn, could cause depression. They further conveyed that university experts are more inclined to handle depression as the greatest contributing factor to poor academic outcomes, neglecting the fact that a poor self-image caused by poor sleep quality is major root of depression. Thus, given these gaps in the literature, it is essential to identify the actual fundamental relationship between sleep quality and depression among college students.
Nonetheless, despite the comprehensiveness and validity of the findings about the greater importance of sleep quality over sleep quantity, some researchers claim that proponents of sleep quality did not take into consideration other factors that could influence academic performance among college students. Without taking into account sleep quantity, these researchers argue that it is not possible to draw an accurate conclusion about the actual impact of sleep disorders on the academic performance of college students (Wolfson & Carskadon, 2003). The studies of educators, social scientists, and developmental psychologists in evaluating aspects that focus on disparities in academic performance have emphasized the significance of a more inclusive model than most sleep experts have adopted.
Similarly, other social scientists currently argued that researchers that examine the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral performance of college students have to take into full account of the quantity of sleep on the psychological and physiological health of college students. They argue that sleep quality alone cannot account for the full aspect of the academic performance of college students. For instance, studies have reported that shorter duration of sleep affects the ability of college students to focus during classroom activities and examinations. Lawrence Epstein, a medical professor at Harvard University, argues for the importance of sleep quantity (American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2007, para 3):
Recent studies have shown that adequate sleep is essential to feeling awake and alert, maintaining good health and working at peak performance. After two weeks of sleeping six hours or less a night, students feel as bad and perform as poorly as someone who has gone without sleep for 48 hours. New research also highlights the importance of sleep in learning and memory. Students getting adequate amounts of sleep performed better on memory and motor tasks than did students deprived of sleep.
Several researchers support lengthier sleep for students because brain functions are also dependent on the amount of sleep an individual receives.
All of these contentions are valid and reasonable. It is true that both sleep quality and sleep quantity should be taken into account in the examination of the physical, cognitive, and behavioral performance of college students. Both sleep quality and sleep quantity affect the overall wellbeing of an individual. However, the primacy of sleep quality over sleep quantity has been supported by a fair number of studies. Stenzel (2015) firmly argues that college students should be trained in time management and taught about the importance of quality of sleep. He found out from his study of the impact of sleep quality on college students’ behavior that sleeping longer during weekends or free time does not compensate for the lack of efficient sleep. Deficient sleep quality is harder to recover than inadequate sleep quantity. Hence the argument of this paper stands—there should be a greater emphasis on sleep quality among college students.
In conclusion, there is a certain level of confusion between sleep quality and sleep quantity. Many mistakenly interchange the two. Sleep quantity refers to the quantifiable aspect of sleep, such as duration and amount of sleep, whereas sleep quality refers to the intangible characteristic of sleep such as its efficiency and depth. It is the contention of this paper that sleep quality has a greater influence on the academic performance of college students than sleep quantity. There are three supporting premises for this argument: the greater impact of sleep quality on the cognitive performance of students; on the onset of depression; and, on life satisfaction. Poor quality of sleep adversely affects the learning, memory, and concentration skills of students, while nothing of the sort has been mentioned for sleep quantity. According to several studies, too much sleeping can even impair daytime activities, but there is no such thing as ‘excessive’ sleep quality that could detrimentally affect an individual’s psychological, emotional, and physiological performance.
Depressive symptoms usually occur in individuals who are chronically deprived of quality sleep. Staying awake for a number of hours does not significantly contribute to the onset of depression among college students, but excessive stimulation or repetitive arousal during sleep can significantly affect the ability of an individual to cope with internal and external stressors. And, lastly, the wellbeing and quality of life of students is largely determined by the quality of sleep they obtain. The recuperating and invigorating impact of sleep is simply achieved through efficient sleep. However, not everyone is convinced that sleep quality is more important than sleep quantity. Several professionals from various disciplines still adhere to the idea that the duration and amount of sleep that students get significantly affects their ability to perform well academically. Some support a more balanced view of sleep quality and sleep quantity.
American Academy of Sleep Medicine (2007, November 30). College students: getting enough sleep is vital to academic success. Retrieved from http://www.aasmnet.org/articles.aspx?id=659.
Edell-Gustafsson, U. (1999). Sleep, psychological symptoms and quality of life in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Uppsala, Sweden: Linkoping University. https://www.google.com.ph/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCEQFjAAahUKEwin5_Ok_PXGAhULSI4KHUqCAZA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.diva-portal.org%2Fsmash%2Fget%2Fdiva2%3A249227%2FFULLTEXT02.pdf&ei=J1ezVee3GIuQuQTKhIaACQ&usg=AFQjCNFTWpGghxcnvGlMBa3jnItZyM3_FA&sig2=bEsX_hMXMTqE9UfyC2lHdw&bvm=bv.98717601,d.c2E
Galambos, N., Howard, A., & Maggs, J. (2010). Rise and fall of sleep quantity and quality with student experiences across the first year of university. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(2), 342-349.
Gikunda, R. et al. (2014). The effect of sleep quantity on performance of students in public universities, Kenya. Merit Research Journal of Education and Review, 2(6), 113-118. https://www.google.com.ph/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCAQFjAAahUKEwiR6rSX_PXGAhWJjo4KHdk2AmQ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmeritresearchjournals.org%2Fer%2Fcontent%2F2014%2FJune%2FGikunda%2520et%2520al.pdf&ei=C1ezVdG4BomdugTZ7YigBg&usg=AFQjCNEUDQJxV-UTOTxn89xNx8eF8IYVog&sig2=6DMgKt4XXobK1l81KvX5xg&bvm=bv.98717601,d.c2E
Gilbert, S., & Weaver, C. (2010). Sleep quality and academic performance in university students: a wake-up call for college psychologists. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 24, 295-306.
Gruber, R. & Brouillette, R. (2006). Towards an understanding of sleep problems in childhood depression. Sleep, 29(3), 351-358. http://www.journalsleep.org/Articles/290401.pdf
Gunnarsdottir, K. (2014). Effects of poor subjective sleep quality on symptoms of depression and anxiety among adolescents. Thesis Paper for the Department of Psychology, 2-16.
Hershner, S., & Chervin, R. (2014). Causes and consequences of sleepiness among college students. Nature and Science of Sleep NSS, 6, 73-84.
Johansson, A. (2012). Sleep-wake-activity and health-related quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease. Linkoping University Medical Dissertations, 1272, 3-107.
Liu, X. (2004). Sleep and adolescent suicidal behavior. Sleep, 27(7), 1351-1358.
Lowry, M., Dean, K., & Manders, K. (2010). The link between sleep quantity and academic performance for the college student. The University of Minnesota Undergraduate Journal of Psychology, 3, 16-19. http://faculty.oxy.edu/clint/physio/article/TheLinkBetweenSleepQuantityandAcademic.pdf
Pilcher, J., Ginter, D., & Sadowsky, B. (1997). Sleep quality versus sleep quantity: relationships between sleep and measures of health, well-being and sleepiness in college students. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 42(6), 583-596.
Stenzel, J. (2015). Sleep quality and negative associated behaviors of college students: A Cross-Sectional Study. The Spectrum: A Scholars Day Journal, 3(10), 1-11.
Telzer, et al. (2013). The effects of poor quality sleep on brain function and risk taking in adolescence. NeuroImage, 71, 275-283.
Trockel, M., Barnes, M., & Egget, D. (2000). Performance among first-year college students: implications for sleep and other behaviors. Journal of American College Health, 49, 125-131.
Wolfson, A. & Carskadon, M. (2003). Understanding adolescents’ sleep patterns and school performance: a critical appraisal. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 7(6), 491-506.
Agargun, M.Y. et al. (1998). Repetitive and frightening dreams and suicidal behavior in patients with major depression. Comparative Psychiatry, 39, 198-202.
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Middle Paleolithic Era and the Emergence of Homo Sapiens
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