Essays about Commerce

Adolph Coors In The Brewing Industry Essay

Introduction

Adolph Coors, Sr. opened his brewery in 1973 in Golden, Colorado. By the 1930s, Coors started selling beer in eight different states. These states included Nevada, California, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Utah, Idaho, Kansas and Wyoming. By 1948, Coors expanded its territory and started selling beer in Texas. These states were the only states Coors sold out of until 1975. By 1985, Coors’s distribution network consisted of 569 independent wholesales and five which were company owned (Ghemawat 6).
Coors’s beer was a growing success in the 70s. In the 1960s, Coors sold 1.9 barrels of beer. The numbers

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Free Coca Cola Research Paper Example

It is a fact that Coca-Cola Company is the largest beverage company in the world, offering more than 500 different sparkling brands to their customers. Today the company portfolio includes 20 billion dollar brands featuring Sprite, Fanta, Simply, Vitaminwater, Del Valle, Diet Coke, Minute Maid, and, of course, Coca-Cola. Now the company is the number one provider of the most popular sparkling beverages, juices or juice drinks, and ready-to-drink coffees.
Thanks to the biggest beverage distribution system, the customers from more than two hundred countries are free to enjoy the famous taste of The Coca-Cola Company’s beverages. It

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Good Research Paper On The Name Of The Topic: Economics: The 500 Company – SWOT And Domestic Economic Growth

Part A

Introduction
Fortune 500 companies are the top 500 companies in the US which are listed by Fortune magazine every year. The companies are generally ranked on the basis of their gross revenue (Fortune 500). The Fortune magazine started to enlist these 500 best company in 1955 for the first time. The concept of selecting best 500 American companies was first created by Edgar Smith, the editor of Fortune 500. In these 500 best companies, the top companies are Wal-Mart Stores, Exxon Mobil, Chevron, Berkshire Hathaway, and Apple (Fortune 500)
The company chosen for this research paper is Disney. Fortune

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Free Research Paper About Financial Analysis: Jaedan Industries

About the paper

The paper is commissioned to conduct financial analysis of Jaedan Industry. As part of this analysis, we will be calculating the free cash flow of the firm for the year 2010. In addition to this, we will also run the financial figures for the year 2009 and 2010 under the microscope of financial ratios to unearth the strengths and weaknesses in the firm’s organizational architecture.

Income Statement:

Balance Sheet
Cash Flow Statement
Calculating Jaedan’s Free Cash Flow
In order to calculate the free cash flow of the firm, we will be using the excerpts from the financial statements, while

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Essay On Current Issues Affecting Labor Relations And Collective Bargaining

Introduction

Labor relations can be described as the employment relationship in the organization of employment. Public and private enterprises both are faced with the labor relations problems. In this context, collective bargaining can be defined as the process of negotiation between an employer and group of employees to reach at an agreement (Zhang et al., 2014). The interests of the employees are represented by a trade representative and the process mainly aims to regulate the working conditions and bring harmony between the relations of employer and employees (Zhang et al., 2014). In this context, the present essay aims to evaluate

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Capital Structures And Cost Of Capital Report Example

Introduction

Capital structure management is a crucial aspect of effective cost control. That is because the structure determines a company’s cost, hence determining its performance and ability to create wealth for its shareholders. In that view, this analysis seeks to demonstrate how the structures influence companies’ performance as well as decision making. To achieve that, the analysis evaluates three companies in Hospitality industry. In that respect, this report begins with an overview of the companies’ debt structure and how it influences the companies’ cost of capital. That is followed by overview of how the companies’ long term financing polices

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The Tension Between Democracy And Capitalist Research Paper Sample

There is no doubt that the society is more democratic than before. Today, about two-thirds of the world hold free and relatively fair elections (Reich par. 1). At the same time, capitalism has spread far and wide in many parts of the world. There is a belief that capitalism and democracy are synergetic in nature with each strengthening the other. Perhaps this was the case until the 2008 collapse of the financial system in America that triggered economic and political crisis across the globe (Streeck par. 1). The extended conflicts and continued in the war era may have fuelled

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Essay On Analyzing The Balance Sheet Of Make-A-Wish Foundation

Make-A-Wish Foundation is a non-profit organization founded in the US which grants wishes to children suffering from life threatening illnesses. The foundation’s vision is to make every eligible child’s wish to come true for which they provide a series of experiences for them. The foundation is 501c3 non-profit organization in the Unites States and is tax-exempt under the Internal Revenue Code. This paper examines the Annual Report of the foundation for the year 2014 and analysis whether it complies with FASB’s Statement of Financial Accounting, Standard No. 117.

According to Financial Accounting Standards Board [FASB] (1993), FAS 117 requires “that all not-for-profit organizations provide a statement of financial position, a statement of activities, and a statement of cash flows.” On analysis of Make-A-Wish Foundation’s Annual Report, all requirements seem to have been complied with. The Net Assets have been classified into the three categories viz. permanently restricted, temporarily restricted and unrestricted categories in the statement of activities and displayed in the statement of financial Position as is required by FASB (1993) that, “the amounts for each of three classes of net assets viz. permanently restricted, temporarily restricted, and unrestricted should be displayed in the statement of financial position. Further, the amounts of change in each of those classes of net assets should be shown in the statement of activities.”
The annual report also provides a separate statement of functional expenses totaling $ 277,334,525 which is complaint with FASB’s ruling that “the non-profit organization should provide information about expenses by (a) functional classification, (b) natural classification, (c) either functional or natural classification at the option of the organization or (d) both functional and natural classification” (Make-A-Wish, 2014, p.6).

FASB (1993) also requires that in order for the financial statements to be useful, data must be simplified, condensed, and aggregated into meaningful totals. The foundation’s financial statements provide a concise view of material transactions which are essential for the stakeholders to use. It also provides condensed and understandable notes to the financial statements which are essentially required by FAS 117. Further, the Board believes that reporting assets, liabilities, items of revenue, expenses, gains and losses into reasonably homogenous groups enhances the usefulness of financial information provided. This has been kept in mind by the foundation while preparing its annual financial statements. The notes to financial statements present that the contributions made have been segregated into seven categories and received into time-based categories. Classification of gains and losses on permanent endowments are in consistence with the Board's fundamental conclusions for contributions received. Similarly, property and assets have been classified into homogenous groups as well.

Aggregate totals have been correctly made for operations and activities of the organization in its financial statements which is as provided by FASB. Cash and Cash equivalents have been classified into operating, investing and financial activities just like a business concern as the Board feels that comparability is enhanced if same classifications are used. Change in net assets depicted in the statement of activities is also in correspondence with FAS 117.
The financial statements of Make-A-Wish foundation “provide useful information that appropriately reflects the economics of the entity’s activities, resources and obligations” (“Not-For –Profits,” 2015). The organization follows “accrual basis of accounting in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the US” (Make-A-Wish, 2014, p.7). Thus, they are in compliance with FASB’s ruling 117.

References

Financial Accounting Standards Board. (1993).
Make-A-Wish Foundation of America and Related Entities (2014). Annual Report [PDF document]. Retrieved from http://wish.org/about-us/making-a-difference/managing-funds
Not-For-Profits. (2015). Retrieved July 26, 2015 from http://www.fasb.org/jsp/FASB/Page/BridgePage&cid=1351027226246

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Essay On The Structure Of The International System

At the present time, much emphasis of the discussion over the system of the international relations is on the topic that it is unjust at its root and, as a result, promotes under-development. Throughout the history of human development and the world system formation, "the natural systems that have supported human life on the planet are being stretched, some to breaking point. What science has been telling us for decades is now making itself felt in the most unmistakable ways" (McDonagh, 2013, p. 1). In fact, long before the development of the system of international relations and world economy, every individual and every group used to improve their living conditions through exploiting the natural resources which have always belonged to them. "Every continent independently participated in the early epochs of the extension of man’s control over his environment – which means in effect that every continent can point to a period of economic development" (Rodney & Babu, 1981. p. 2-3).

But what do we have today? Let's take a look at Africa, which is the original home of a human being. This continent "was a major participant in the processes in which human groups displayed an ever increasing capacity to extract a living from the natural environment" (Rodney & Babu, 1981. p. 3-4). However, in the modern world., the majority of African countries are considered to be the third-world countries, suffering from starvation and having no prospects for development.
Therefore, the main point of this essay is to prove that the current structure of the international system is inherently unfair, creates inequalities , and benefits only the most advanced and developed nations.

Not only prominent economists and doctors of sociology are concerned about the inequality promoted by the current structure of the international system, but also other men of outstanding personality, including political and religious leaders, express their concern about this issue. For instance, Pope Francis (2013), asserted that "Human rights are not only violated by terrorism, repression or assassination, but also by unfair economic structures that creates huge inequalities".

Speaking from the perspective of economic opportunities, it should be noted that the process of globalization affects various states in different ways and the undeveloped countries do not experience all the benefits of this process as compared to the developed nations. "Inequality in this context refers to an unequal distribution of benefits and losses under the uneven process of a globalized world" (Ashaver, 2013, p. 34).

The fundamental problem of the international system is that the benefits of globalization cannot be distributed evenly around the world. The majority of industrial sectors of the developed nations benefit from international trade and make huge profits by means of the influx of skilled labor from abroad, international funding. In the meantime, the majority of developing nations lose their competitiveness or simply become unnecessary. It is obvious that these forgotten industries need time, money, and physical resources to adjust to the new conditions of life within the international economic system.

However, this process of renewal and restoration is impossible for the majority of industries in the third-world and developing countries. As a result, owners end up losing money and their business overall, and common people end up losing their jobs. These changes deeply and profoundly hurt the national economies of each country, causing great changes in the economic structure and increasing the unemployment rate.

As of today, the structure of the international system also provides for the de-industrialization of the economy, which basically means that manufacturing sector loses ground, while the arena is left to the thriving service sector. As a result, workers have to go through the process of professional retraining in order to find a place in this changing global system.
What is more, the current international system creates a large gap between skilled and unskilled employees. Of course, skilled workers' salary increases significantly, while the unskilled ones get paid peanuts or even lose their source of income. Although some economists argue that such inequality is a powerful incentive for employees to train, develop and acquire a new qualification, it definitely gives rise to unemployment.

Such inequality of economic opportunities causes significant wage disparities, particularly in the developing world. For instance, "Brazil has one of the most unequal distribution of income - the top 20% of the population receives 26 times the income of the bottom 20%" (United Nations Development Programme, 1992, p. 22).
Continuing this topic, it should be noted that "inequality is also manifested in the fast-growing gap between the worlds rich and poor people and between the developed and developing countries, and in the large differences among nations in the distribution of gains and losses" (Ashaver, 2013, p. 34).
Another major point of concern regarding the current international system is the flows of international migration. In pursuit of better living, many unskilled and unqualified workers move from the undeveloped countries to the developed states. There is no need to explain that their salary differs significantly from that of the country residents.
The majority of governments of the developed nations impose severe restrictions and barriers in order to restrict immigration flows. "It is clearly unrealistic to expect that industrial countries will greatly lower their immigration barriers" (United Nations Development Programme, 1992, p. 6).

Another major issue associated with the international migrations is the labor standars and working conditions the immigrants have to operate in. In fact, in recent years, "international labor standards have become the newest point of contention in trade disputes between industrial and developing countries" (Golub, 1997, p. 20). A lot immigrant workers have to work in unfavorable working conditions, work excess hours in order to earn a living. What is more, many multinational corporations employ young children and make them work up to 12-14 hours a day.
As to international investment, it should be noted that the allocation of investment also seems to be extremely unfair. The undeveloped nations, as a general rule, receive no or little investment as compared to the developed nations. "Why have these countries attracted so little investment? The major reason is that investment is generally more profitable in rich countries than in poor ones" (United Nations Development Programme, 1992, p. 53).
It is obvious that international investment is one of the key elements for successful and productive development for the third-world countries. As a result, "where the international economic system is hostile to investment in new, productivity enhancing economic activities is where its elements create obstacles to development" (Montes, 2014, p.2).

According to former Secretary-General of the USSR, Mikhail Gorbachev (2001), "We could only solve our problems by cooperating with other countries. It would have been paradoxical not to cooperate". For the purpose of solving the abovementioned issues of promoting under-development, various international organizations and institution, including IMF, the World Bank, GATT, and WTO, have been established. However, having regard to the fact that the issues of under-development still exist and that the gap between developed and developing nations is widening year by year, there are some questions that need to be answered.
In his research "Globalization, Development, and International Institutions: Normative and Positive Perspectives", A. Milner clearly stated the three key questions that still remain without answer: "Would the developing countries have been better off if these institutions had not existed? Would resources for aid and crisis management have been as plentiful or more so if they had not existed? Would globalization have occurred as fast and extensively, or even faster and deeper, if these international institutions had not been present?" (Milner, 2005. p. 834).

References

Ashaver, B., 2013. Poverty, Inequality and Underdevelopment in Third World Countries: Bad State Policies or Bad Global Rules? IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science [Online], 15(6), 33–38. Available from: <http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jhss/papers/vol15-issue6/f01563338.pdf?id=7752> [Accessed 19 Jul. 2015].
Golub, S., 1997. Are International Labor Standards Needed to Prevent Social Dumping? Finance & Development [Online], 20-23. Available from: <https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/1997/12/pdf/golub.pdf> [Accessed 22 Jul. 2015].
McDonagh, T., 2013. Unfair, Unsustainable, and Under the Radar: How Corporations Use Global Investment Rules to Undermine a Sustainable Future. Democracyctr.Org [Online], 1-18. Available from: <http://democracyctr.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/under_the_radar_english_final.pdf> [Accessed 20 Jul. 2015].
Milner, H., 2005. Globalization, Development, and International Institutions: Normative and Positive Perspectives. Perspectives on Politics [Online], 3(4), 833–854. Available from: <http://faculty.georgetown.edu/jrv24/milner_05.pdf> [Accessed 23 Jul. 2015].
Montes, M.F., 2014. Obstacles to Development Arising from the International System . In Obstacles to Development in the Global Economic System . Geneva: South Centre, pp. 1–29.
Rodney, W. & Babu, A.M., 1981. Some Questions on Development. In How Europe underdeveloped Africa. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, pp. 1–432.
PSB, 2001. Mikhail Gorbachev Interview. PBS.Org. [Online] (updated 23 Apr. 2001) Available from: <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/commandingheights/shared/minitext/int_mikhailgorbachev.html> [Accessed 24 Jul. 2015].
The Guardian, 2013. Pope Francis: the humble pontiff with practical approach to poverty. [Online] (updated 14 Mar. 2013) Available from: <http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/mar/13/jorge-mario-bergoglio-pope-poverty> [Accessed 20 Jul. 2015].
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), 1992. The widening gap in global opportunities . In Human development report 1992. New York: [Oxford University Press] for the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) [Online] Available from: <http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/reports/221/hdr_1992_en_complete_nostats.pdf> [Accessed 20 Jul. 2015].

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Example Of Annual Report British Airways Report

Introduction

Background of British Airways
British Airways (BA) was formed in 1972. The initial approach of the company was to manage two national airline companies named “British Overseas Airways Corporations” and “British European Airways”. BA is an international airline that is headquartered in London. The company is providing its services in above 400 destinations in different parts of the world. The company creates alliances with code share, franchises and other joint ventures.
The vision of the company is to become the most accepted airline in the world. To accomplish their vision British Airways always tries to control its cost to

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