Essay On Critically Evaluate The Contribution Of Brain Imaging Techniques To Our Understanding Of Human Cognition

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Brain imaging techniques are useful to study different areas of the brain. There are many popular imaging techniques present in the media. Any technique that deals with the structure of the brain and evaluate the mechanism of the brain comes in cognitive brain imaging techniques. In a research study, I read about two techniques PET and MRI. PET stands for positron emission tomography. It helps in identifying disease, working of organs and tissues in the body. MRI stands for magnetic resonance imaging. It also scans the detailed images of organs and tissues present in the body. However, these brain imaging techniques aren’t necessarily useful to provide accurate results. The performance of the brain imaging techniques is correlated with physiological measurement. The results evaluate about functioning of different areas of the brain. There is a load of imaging techniques on the media.
A small magnitude might not be feasible to identify working of the brain. As the brain is a complex study of human cognition. It is possible that MRI and PET might not detect the accurate result of the brain activity. It is not necessary that pattern created from MRI and PET is insignificant. It can only be found significant over a low resolution of activity pattern by running an independent test. Neuropsychology, a study of brain damage tells us that it is hard to find cognitive function through cognitive brain image methods. There is a huge range of Cognitive Brain Imaging techniques to test errors found in the pattern activity.
Neuroimaging of the present day explores the study of the human brain, mind, and behavior. These brain imaging techniques help in learning gestures, facial expressions, and postures. There is a brain’s mirroring system to understand non-verbal messages. Importance of brain imaging becomes more considerable when human thoughts and behavior are appreciated. The neuroscience believes that social interaction with other people impacts on brains and minds. Social interaction is one cause that influence human emotion such as cooperation, playing and questioning etc. The biggest challenge for brain imaging is to study human interaction. The laboratory test becomes difficult in the complex natural environment.
Neuroscience has gain popularity since the study based on brain related areas such as social cognition and interaction. Brain imaging promises to extract information from the brain physiology, emotion research, cognitive and clinical neuroscience. The biggest contribution of brain imaging technique is to analyze the human action and interaction. These two help in shaping the mind. The information collected is available in a scattered shape about human behavior and mind. The two-way process i.e. motor and sensory mirroring help in gathering information about human cognition. Automated neuronal mechanism is advanced brain imaging technology to analyze actions, emotions and behaviors. Brain imaging methods are able to study autism and schizophrenia i.e. abnormal social attention and unusual social meaning.
Brain imaging has played a big part in recording brain dynamics i.e. human interaction and behavior. Advanced brain imagery treatment contribute a lot to understand brain and body dynamics. The cognitive procedure uses imaging approach that achieve behavioral goals of human physical structure. The eye tracking map is an effective way to capture gaze by faces. It is a two-way experiment to study the human brain. The two similar images are shown to the human. The patient has to interpret the two images. The neurophysiologist will understand the patient condition on the basis of interpretation.
In psychology, a doctor is able to identify patient condition through his communication and expression on his face. Images and scans help in studying face identification, expression, object recognition, and gaze. Trust game has conducted among a group of people. Each one has to tell the level of attraction of their opponent. The result shows that those who have acted in a fair manner were found attractive. Whereas those acted in an unfair manner were ranked as less attractive. Brain study tells about action and perception of two-person interaction. How the brain act? In the interaction three ways a brain respond i.e. Motor command, Sensory prediction and Sensory Cortex. The current brain imaging technique is neglected when bidirectional is influence due to methodological limitations. Further, repetition of certain actions lies under the consequences of sensory expectation. Here, the perception and behavior has built for interaction.
Brain imaging techniques have advancement over the period of time. In the 19th century X-rays were the only way to study brain activity. The new innovation and advancement in the computer technology has taken place. New advancement has introduced new ways of studying the brain. Additional test like MRI and PET are the advanced development in the category of brain imaging technique. Human brain activity has become easier to study, because of new brain imaging techniques. Moreover, human behavior is acted according to the environment he perceives from his surroundings. While the cognitive procedure is measuring brain activity and dynamics.
One of a great advancement in the brain imaging techniques is new mobile brain imaging method. Sensors and other mobile technology have become essential for brain recording in the near future. New insights in the brain dynamics are found through brain imaging. Human cognition can monitor through sensory systems to identify the active behavior. Different superficial scalp muscles etc. react inevitably. EMG is present in human activity such as, walking, pointing and reaching towards the object. Animal tested results from brain imaging suggest that there are new insights develop which shows an active behavior of an animal. Further, it is described as modulation studies that tell brain dynamics and reaction on the basis of human behavior. Also, the human brain works actively the way his brain respond.
Other brain imagery techniques are testing “brain damaged subjects, CT scan, single-cell recording, stimulation, and EEG”. All of these tests are part of neuropsychology. We’ll explain each test one by one. Start with testing brain damaged subjects. It is explained as an injury in the brain due to uncertain incident helps in recognizing the damaged area. In this test, doctors can easily identify the injury as damaged area is an indicator to it. Researcher gives an example of a “brain damaged testing” by describing the incident happened with railroad construction worker. Worker name is Phineas Gage. He survives from an explosive accident i.e. cylindrical rod driven through his head. The incident has damaged his frontal lobe. Due to it, Gage personality has changed as his friends describe him Gage is no longer gage. Another test was conducted on Gage that was physiological testing in which behavioral changes are noted. In this case damaged frontal lobes didn’t allow his brain to make healthy decision and emotion. Therefore, it is clear that such accidents disturb brain and creates difficulties in the memory and speech production.
Lesion studies are another brain imaging technique. Lesion deficit is noted if part of a brain is removed. Performance is judged through comparing the before and after results. The branch of neuropsychology believes that brain surgery might sound brutal. In the lesion studies that brain region is removed, that has a minimum chance of failure.
Stimulation is a chemical treatment. It is a signal of feeding electrical or chemical treatment to measure neural circuit and its consequences. Surgery is required in invasive stimulation. It conducts an assessment about which region of the brain is affected. It is a critical situation as a surgeon has to balance speaking ability intact. What is a single cell recording? It is another neuroscience brain imagery technique. It is a test that conduct microelectrode recording. Neuronal networks are identified in the recording. Also, it works when movement is seen in a specific direction.
CT scan one of the most popular techniques of the brain imaging. X-rays are conducted to identify the relative density of the tissue. The visual image of the brain is only constructed when computational techniques are used. If a certain procedure is repeated more than one time then due to radiation it can damage tissue. We can only have structural information that is gathered from the brain through CT scan. It is useful for studying problematic brain tissue. Also, it gives insight news of how brain function during cognition.
Neuroscience has created another method to study the brain and its relation to the human cognition i.e. EEG. What is EEG? It stands for Electroencephalogram and Event-related Potentials. Electro-chemical signals are about nerve cells and scalp recording. Human brain recording has taken place in the year 1924. There is a range of -100 and +100 microvolts in the normal EEG test. Scalp recording provides gross measure. It shows the activity of neurons that are present in huge number. However, many frequency patterns get distinguished in the EEG test. Alpha, beta, theta and delta rhythm are generated in the EEG. EEG recording is tested through two measurements. It produces the wave size and per second number of waves. Honestly speaking to get better amplitude the patient has to feel relax. So that lower frequency is detected in the waves.
The electrodes are twenty in number based on 10/20 system. It is a system created by Jasper in 1958. The specific brain region is identified through a system that is by placing each electrode. Recording is another tool to study the difference in the voltage. The difference is between usual electrode reference and exploring electrode. It is a test that needs to be done in a still position. If the patient do movement while running EEG test the report can result in an error. Error can result in a failure of the test.
The overall perspective, I get from brain imaging techniques is very effective. The brain study of neuroscience has provided useful techniques. Brain imaging techniques help in diagnosing critical brain condition. The brain is a sensitive part of the body. Cells and tissues that are present in the brain are delegated. Also, if a CT scan is repeated more than one time, it can damage thinking ability and disturb a person to person communication. Therefore, a care is very necessary by the psychologist. It is his duty that he should not conduct similar test more than one time. However, EEG, MRI, and PET etc. have great results.
There is a less chance of not identifying the actual effect area of the brain. The brain is a part that works like a CPU of a computer. The brain is the only part that guide the body to move, react, walk, talk and think. Communication among two or more human being is continued only when brain signal. That is why, it is essential for us to have brain imaging techniques to study human behavior. Yes, brain imaging techniques plays a big part in the human cognition and emotion. If a person is depressed and has cut off from society has a symptom of abnormality. Such patients need immediate treatment. Assessment of such brain activity can extract through testing brain imaging methods. EEG is a sensitive test that doesn’t require any movement of the patient. If a movement has occurred by the patient then failure in test result might exist. I found that human behavior and emotion are case-sensitive. Therefore, any brain imaging technique has advantages and disadvantages. The advantages and disadvantages are for the both psychologist and patient. As, it allows the brain to act, work and react the human brain and behavior. EEG scan is dangerous because it has x-rays and other scanning treatment. Different methods are notable that bring happiness in the society.

Work Cited

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