Essays about Sense

Free Report On Discursive Analysis Essay.

Foundation Course – Researching Psychology

Abstract Page
The research being conducted has practical, theoretical and scientific value in the research field. Lacanian discourse analysis helps identify the treatment in psychoanalysis, can be applied to studying mental and social characteristics of a language spoken by various minorities.
An interviewer and an interviewee took part in a research; the conversation was written down and attached to the paper on the consent of the interviewee. The theory of Lacanian Discursive Analysis has been applied to the paper in order to identify the symbolic and the imaginary unconscious reflected in the language spoken.
In the first section of

Continue reading 17 Pages

Kosher Food Essay Samples

Kosher laws are Jewish religions laws on which foods Jewish people should eat and how they are prepared. A rabbi actually does not have to bless food to make it kosher, but in the modern world when it is difficult to know precisely what ingredients are in our food, it is sometimes helpful to have a rabbi review the ingredients to ensure the food is kosher (Kashrut: Jewish Dietary Laws). Kosher is observed all year round, not simply during Jewish holidays.
Kosher laws can be complicated and complex, but some of the more common kosher practices include; not eating

Continue reading 3 Pages

Essay On Legal Authority During Public Health Disaster

Disasters most commonly elicit the response of city, local, state, and federal aid agencies to meet the mitigation of destruction during various phases of an emergency event. Public health legal authority, during a hazardous substance discharge, may call for both public and private agency involvement. Thrusting personnel and materials in the area must operate under the auspices of inter-jurisdictional protocol and legal authority. The objectives in this written exercise are to alert the learner, in anticipation of future professional behavior, about gaining an understanding for legal protocols in public health/hazardous emergencies while maintaining the highest levels of public safety during a disastrous event – involving dangerous substance discharges. In an effort to explore questions pertaining to the assigned case study, this essay seeks to posit descriptions, and explanations for procedural legal authorities in an emergency response situation.

Background: Question 1 & 2

At the outset it is important to present a brief overview of the definition of law, in matters of public health authorizations and preparedness. Kamoie et al. (2008) states that law can be defined “as a rule of conduct derived from federal or state constitutions, statutes, local laws, judicial opinions, administrative rules and regulations, international codes, or other pronouncements by entities authorized to prescribe conduct in a legally binding manner” (p. 23). In the event of a mass-casualty bio-chemical event a Governor can declare an emergency under the legal authority of health agency directives, for types comprising “natural disaster,” or those associated with public health disease/emergencies, according to a document Fact Sheet published by The Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (Emergency Declarations, Authorities”). Since according to Kamoie et al. (2008) law is a key component of the legal public health core.

So as the situation warrants, the Governor may declare such given an assessment of the dire urgency in bio-chemical type of disaster. Although, under the Public Health Service (PHS) Act the Feds may establish such declaration. The criteria and procedures for requesting emergency response aid from state/local jurisdictions obviously varies from region to region. However, the general process allows the Governor to: (a) declare the status of emergency for a specific period of time, (b) act within state rules/regulations, and (c) coordinate/request help from neighboring states usually under authority of federal agencies gathering logistical, financial, and “technical assistance” (“Emergency Declarations, Authorities”). The extent of help and exact funding from federal government, must be coordinated.

October 1, Train Derailment: Questions 3 & 4

When multiple jurisdictions are affected by a disaster of the burgeoning greenish-yellow toxic chem-cloud formations (from the train wreck), communications are the key to releasing authorities. Inevitably, the CDC will be involved at the federal level. But as Kamoie et al. (2008) note, “at the state level, the primary legal authority to respond to emergencies has been the police power,” to act as arms of the state to regulate protections for “the health, safety, and welfare of citizens” (p. 24). This might be viewed as a first-line of immediate security. Of course, common sense dictates that some of the key legal concerns regarding first responders and volunteers, would be their safety and legal qualifications. But, just as the case of 9/11 demonstrated, first responders at the local level are on the scene initially. In critical ways, they are the key link to administrating crucial communications to multi-jurisdictional authorities and federal agencies.

The local sheriff’s office will most likely coordinate the police powers and localized actions of authority to secure the area from onlookers, and interested panicked people from further clogging up the access pathways to the areas immediately affected. In coordination of HAZMAT teams, in consideration of the gas plumes quickly proliferating and spreading, a series of communications systems will be implemented, with local Fire Department and local Public Works Department. As demonstrated in a real-life case as documented by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), in a similar train accident, fire, “heat, smoke, and fumes had restricted access to the tunnel for several days” (“Railroad Accident Brief, 2004, p. 1). The conditions involved a similar flooding, with multiple millions of gallons of water having burst from a water main. As in the case pertaining to our case study question, the situation cited in this Railroad Accident Brief which occurred in Baltimore, Maryland, the train of course was in motion at the time of derailment, having had “eight fully loaded tank cars containing hazardous materials” – all of which were “regulated by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT)” (“Railroad Accident Brief, 2004, p. 1). As indicated in the initial paragraph of this Question-Section, communications in these types of public health emergencies are critical. Chief dispatchers and communication centers necessitate a variety of coordinated responses including: site evaluations, assessment of toxins, analysis of potential for explosions, prevention of further damage/injuries, and charting clear legal permissions for authorizations to act.

October 1, Health Consequences at Valley High School: Questions 5 & 6

Competencies and responses are at urgency levels when students begin to experience symptoms of toxic poisoning, especially with maximal exposure to chemical contamination from the nearby train derailment. Given the factor that deaths have already ensued, with a plethora of 9-11 calls to the local hospital, obviously the situation calls for immediate action. The Governor must proceed along the proper criteria for declaration of a state of emergency in the area specifically constituting a public health emergency. The actual local procedures for the Governor may demonstrate an urgent approval by the legislative body and/or State executive officers (“Emergency Declarations, Authorities”). Also, within the rubric of the situation it may additionally be necessary to declare an emergency of several types, in the areas of both public health and disaster depending upon how that particular State jurisdiction is established to respond.
What constitutes a public health emergency? According to federal authorities, a public health emergency is defined by the statute under portion 319 of the Public Health Service (PHS) Act as aforementioned. The situation is described as involving disease or any type of urgent public health disorder, which may also include “significant outbreaks of infectious disease or bioterrorist attacks” (“Public Health Emergency Declaration,” 2015). The federal government extensively lists all such examples which may include, but not be limited to, tornadoes, floods, flu outbreaks, hurricanes, or anything threatening to spread contaminants of disease or toxins.

Mutual aid agreements can be used both during an absent an emergency declaration, but smartly responding to the situation within common-sense legal awareness. In the clear absence of an officially authorized emergency declaration, there are options for improvement of legal competencies. In a scholarly journal article on this aspect, Gebbie et al. (2008) that four key issues may outline a framework. Authors Gebbie et al. (2008) explain that the first such area considers an expansion of sectors requiring “competency in public health law and public health legal preparedness” (p. 53). In other words, since legal ramifications can be complex, as well as the involvement of professionals in critical public health roles, each sector of stakeholders should have identifiable competencies. For example, in the case of the people actually dying within four hours of the train accident, the National Guard may need to exercise evacuation at some point, and the CDC and Red Cross may need to exercise their organizational responses. Therefore, mutual aid agreements can be used and applied in the absence of a declared state of emergency, by adhering to local laws so deemed enforceable on the local or State level on the basis and scope of best practices under the locally deemed jurisdictional statutes. Use of all readily available assessment tools, diagnoses, legal/police protections, and quarantines so available must be coordinated by such mutual aid agreements.

October 1, Further Information: Question 7a, 7b, & 7c

At this point, it is understood that the Fire Chief himself has been nearly overwhelmed by the fumes after arrival on the scene. It is also clear at this juncture that communications have been impaired. The legal and operational considerations which influence the decision to call for an evacuation is due to the ‘Red-Alert’ situation. In the case of the nursing home facility being unable to move their elderly for 24 hours, demands that communications seek another immediate route. Since the disaster has, thus far, rendered contamination covering two states an emergency outreach utilizing the communications system (temporarily) of the third adjacent state – which has not, up to this point been affected. The legal and competencies factors should be considered when deciding upon a shelter-in-place for evacuation. For example, reliance upon the professional expertise of the nursing home director who insists that the elderly dwellers cannot be moved before 24 hours, demonstrates his practical certified competency in his field. Another key factor to be considered, is whether the third state (which has not been affected) can lend help with communications while possibly creating an emergency horizontal community of responders. Gebbie et al. (2008) suggest this method to “stimulate the development of best legal practices in public health emergency preparedness for specific communities and specific types of emergency events” (p. 55). Granted, it would have been wise to have formed the coalition before disaster struck, but an urgent cooperative effort is actually beneficial to the entire hinterland, so as to retard the spread of disaster.
The requirements of the elderly and other special-needs populations must be addressed in terms of speed, safety hazards in moving them, and the quality of evacuation location shelters once there. The requirements are addressed by assessing their numbers, and the availability of suitable evacuation locations, and competent medical or care teams, in addition to police protections – until the National Guard may be authorized and deployed. Choosing between mandatory or voluntary evacuation orders is a common-sense call. For example, in the case of Valley High School students, they need to be evacuated immediately – due to the severe and present implications of illness and because of their dangerous proximity in terms of exposure to fumes. Also, they are young and able-bodied enough to more quickly respond to evacuation than the elderly. An alternative measure may need to seal off the nursing home, and administer oxygen masks temporarily until they can be moved.

October 1, Review of Legal Authorities for Evacuation: Question 8

According to FEMA, on the federal level the agencies so designated enforce or authorize an evaluation or actual shelter-in-place order are as follows. FEMA, DHS, and the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Energy, Health & Human Services, Justice, Transportation, Veterans Affairs, GSA (General Service Administration), American Red Cross, and two others (“Mass Evacuation Index”). Obviously, if no emergency has been declared yet by the Governor in a dire situation the Red Cross may be the best road for immediate action.

October 1, Governor Requests Plan Review & Coordination: Questions 9 & 10

Continuity of the courts and justice system must infallibly and meticulously maintained, despite any emergency disaster situation of the most hazardous nature. The way such legal system of courts and jurisprudence are ensured is to follow the step-by-step guide plan which include typical goals of reducing disruptions to operations, continue court essential function, preserve rule of law, minimize loss of life, help secure preservation of equipment/facilities, and designate specified personnel so that clarity of who is in charge is maintained (“Continuity of Court”). State and national coalitions are in place.
In terms of supplying medical services on the spot, and preservation of an orderly atmosphere at medical care facilities in proximity of the disaster, team members of planning work together with the agency (such as The Red Cross, or FEMA). According to the same aforementioned report, they proceed to “identify possible service providers,” which for example may be the local Department of Health & Human Services division (p. 25). In this way, the logistics can be sufficiently ironed out and kept orderly, by assignment of obtaining additional staff, properly communication channels, and assurance of staff roles and competencies. Competencies are very important in this type of case. When one considers the seriousness of a train and multiple-vehicle derailment over water with leakage of dangerously toxic chemicals, that are airborne, timely coordination and competencies are key.
In fact, in the literature, one journal article breaks down the importance of improving competencies in a public health emergency situation while maintaining focus on legal protocols. Gebbie et al. (2008) indicate that “disseminating competency information to key target audiences,” and “improving measurement and evaluation of practice impact” are two vital areas which must be adamantly addressed in terms of framework for the agenda at hand during such emergency (p. 52). Obviously, when the communications were experiencing trouble in the immediate area of the emergency disaster outbreak in our case study, it was learned that to act quickly with flexibility by using the communication infrastructure of the unaffected state. Once that gap had been closed and control of the situation ensures a smooth recovery of communications, rescue and legal stakeholders may proceed. In this context, the law can function better and decide if isolation or quarantine stipulations must be implemented, in accordance with the right professionals and those authorized to play critical roles in the situation.

October 1, Mass Evacuation Order & Concern for Displaced Persons: Questions 11 & 12

At this point, the Emergency Operations Center along with the Governor has decided to order a mass evacuation. Given assistance by local law enforcement agencies, a house-to-house will be conducted. It is important to know the local legal requirements in the jurisdiction to apply public health emergency management care like food, water, shelter, and medical care. The CDC has mandates for the handling of such. Accordingly, the local government and personnel must abide by the Federal Code of Health and Safety Code Section 34070-34072. This mandates contractual provision for “recognized community organizations” to step up to the plate with provisional shelter, care, and food (“Guide for Local”). The coalition partnership works and functions cooperatively with the Red Cross to help citizens, until (or if) national disaster responders may be mobilized.
Local businesses need safety protections as well. Each local jurisdiction may have slightly differing guidelines in place, in terms of the minute details. But the CDC outlines in its guide the general procedures for ensuring that homes and businesses are safe particularly before allowance that people return home. Local law enforcement agencies and the Fire Department play key roles in assessing the situation, while the probability of federal troop intervention may be deployed to help, depending on governmental agreements in planning.

References

Association of State and Territorial Health Officials – ASTHO. (2015). Emergency Declarations and Authorities [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.astho.org/Programs/Preparedness/Public-Health-Emergency-Law/Emergency-Authority-and-Immunity-Toolkit/Emergency-Declarations-and-Authorities-Fact-Sheet/
CDC.gov. (2015). A guide for local jurisdictions in care and shelter planning [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/ehs/Docs/Guide_for_Local_Jurisdictions_Care_and_Shelter_Planning.pdf
FEMA. (2015). Mass Evacuation Incident Index [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/nrf/nrf_massevacuationincidentannex.pdf
Gebbie, K.M., Hodge, J.G., Meier, B.M., Barrett, D.H., Keith, P., Koo, D., & Winget, P. (2008). Improving Competencies for Public Health Emergency Legal Preparedness. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 3652-56. doi:10.1111/j.1748- 720X.2008.00261.x
Kamoie, B. Pestronk, R.M., Baldridge, P., Fidler, D., Devlin, L., Mensah, G.A., & Doney, M. (2008). Assessing Laws and Legal Authorities for Public Health Emergency Legal Preparedness. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 3623-27. doi:10.1111/j.1748- 720X.2008.00256.x
NCSC – National Center for State Courts. (2015). Continuity of Court Operations [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.ncsc.org/~/media/Files/PDF/Services%20and%20Experts/Areas%20of%20expertise/Emergency%20Preparedness/toolkit.ashx
National Transportation Safety Board. (2004). Railroad Accident Brief [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.ntsb.gov/investigations/AccidentReports/Reports/RAB0408.pdf
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2015). Public Health Emergency Declaration [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.phe.gov/Preparedness/legal/Pages/phedeclaration.aspx

Continue reading 10 Pages

Essay On Religious Studies

A Reflection on Scientology

Introduction
The Church of Scientology did not begin as a religion but as a mental health therapeutic theory called Dianetics, which the accompanying book, Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health, came off the press in 9 May 1950, from a science fiction author named Lafayette Ronald Hubbard (1911-1986), or L. Ron Hubbard (DeChant and Jorgensen 304). The Hubbard Association of Scientologists was established in 1952 (305). It was a new religious movement, with its tax-free claim over revenues, which the American society came to view as a religious cult (Blythe 2). However, as far as the U.S. Internal Revenue Service was concerned, it was a ‘for profit’ business and not a non-profit religious organization. So for three years battle with the federal government raged on as Scientology instituted adaptive measures, such as publishing new prayer books, using cross symbols in their meeting places, etc. And, they won with the federal government recognizing it as a tax-exempt religious organization (3). Only four years later in 1954 that the first church of Scientology was founded in Los Angeles. The Church of Scientology as a recognized religion was finally born. However, according to Eugene Methvin, the primary intension is based on the understanding that establishing a religion as where the money is (Methvin 1). This reflective essay aims to understand the major religious tenets of Scientology, its concept of God and of the human relationship with God, its current historical developments, and its cultural stand on positive social change and human equality.

Major Tenets, Doctrines, and Dogmas

The Thetanian Mythology: Scientology teaches that the “theta” is the cosmic force and source of life and “thetans” as the individualized expression of theta (DeChant and Jorgensen 307). Thetan is the true identity of mankind: intrinsically good, omniscient, omni-creative, and immaterial (308). Thus, humans as thetans are pure spirits, immortal, and god. The story goes that, in the primordial past, the thetans the physical MEST universe. However, over time, the thetans came to identify and got enmeshed with the MEST and forgot their true Thetanian identity as well as their powers (309). Consequently, the thetans became trapped in the MEST to such extent they even failed to realize that they are thetans, believing that they are mere physical beings. Because they are immortals, as their bodies deteriorate to death, thetans are repeatedly reborn into the MEST until salvation intervenes. Each lifetime is stored in the thetan’s “reactive mind” (similar to the Freudian “unconscious mind”) as “engrams” (images). These engrams accumulate in the reactive mind each lifetime, moving the thetan further and further away from realizing his true spiritual identity. The objective of Scientology is to save the thetan and restore his awareness to his true spiritual identity.
The ARC Triangle: For salvation to occur, the thetan should acquire a special knowledge that allows him to understand the basic workings of the MEST universe (310). This knowledge is fully embodied in the ARC Triangle. The triangle consists of three interdependent concepts: affinity (degree of affection; the emotional state), reality (agreement of what truly exists), and communication (interchange of ideas). Communication is believed the most important element in the ARC Triangle. Human survival problems have their roots in ineffective communication (311).


The Bridge to Freedom: The concept of the Bridge constitutes the religious means whereby the mastery of the ARC Triangle is achieved. It has dual components: “Training” (religious education) and “Processing” (personal spiritual development). Both components increase spiritual awareness. The first discipline (the Training) frees the thetan from the limitations of the MEST universe. The second discipline (the Processing) restores to the theta all lost or forgotten powers of godhood. Each advance in spiritual awareness moves the thetan into higher levels of mastery of the ARC Triangle. The thetan progresses from the “PreClear” state (the bound state) to the “Clear” state (the state freed from engrams) (312). Thetans in Clear state are ready to start reacquiring their lost powers (313). The final stage is the “Operating Thetan (OT)” state wherein the thetan is learning to harness his analytical mind (instead of the reactive mind) to gain mastery over the MEST. The OT who has successfully functioned under the eight dynamics of existence acquires total spiritual freedom, including the freedom from the endless cycles of birth-death-rebirth, and starts to take on greater and greater cosmic responsibility (314). Scientology aims to “clear” the planet and restore mankind to its true Thetanian identity.

The Eight Dynamics: Scientology believes in the basic command of life, which is “Survive!” This imperative is divided into eight compartments called dynamics (meaning, “urge,” “drive,” or “impulse”) that are used to inspect and understand a person’s life.
(A) First Dynamic, SELF: This refers to the basic drive to survive as an individual and to be an individual with a personal body and mind. It aims to fully express individuality.
(B) Second Dynamic, CREATIVITY: This refers to the impulse to make (“create”) things for the future or survive through a small unit. It includes the establishment of a family unit, raising children, sex, and other family activity.
(C) Third Dynamic, GROUP SURVIVAL: This refers to the urge to survive through a larger group of individuals outside the family, such as a community, friends, a social lodge, a state or nation, a race, and the like.
(D) Fourth Dynamic, SPECIES: This refers to the urge toward survival through all mankind and as all mankind, encompassing all men and women.
(E) Fifth Dynamic, LIFE FORMS: This refers to the urge to survive as life forms and with the help of other life forms (e.g. animals, birds, insects, fish, vegetation, and all other living things).
(F) Sixth Dynamic, PHYSICAL UNIVERSE: This refers to the urge to survive of the four components of the physical universe: matter, energy, space, and time.
(G) Seventh Dynamic, SPIRITUAL DYNAMIC: This refers to the urge to survive as spiritual beings and anything spiritual; the ability to destroy or pretend to be destroyed. It involves the survival of the life source itself, which the seventh dynamic is.
(H) Eight Dynamic, INFINITY: This refers to the urge to the existence as Infinity, to actually embrace the all-ness of all, comparative with the concepts of God, the Supreme Being or Creator.

The Concept of God

The concept of God in Scientology refers to the concept of the Eight Dynamic (Infinity) (“Does Scientology Have a Concept of God?” n. p.). This dynamic refers to the urge towards the existence as Infinity or as God, the Supreme Being or Creator. Thus, God for Scientologists is not a person or an entity but an urge towards or of Infinity. In fact, in this concept of God, it is the human or the thetan who achieved the Eight Dynamics who becomes God himself (“The Eight Dynamics” n. p.). Its concept of God is the human becoming God. But, unlike Christianity wherein the God-Man came to pay for the salvation of mankind, the Scientologist ‘Infinity’ became human because he became bounded to the MEST he created. Thus, the Scientologist ‘god’ made a mistake and became human. He mistakenly lost his thetan-hood or godhood. Thus, achieving the Eight Dynamic is simply reclaiming that godhood once more.

In essence, its concept of the Eight Dynamic is similar to the Mormonist doctrine of ‘celestial progression’ wherein the spouses themselves can become god. There are many differences though between these two religions. First, while Scientology contented itself with achieving only the peak of thetan-hood, the Infinity, Mormonism goes beyond becoming the God the Father to becoming even the Father of the God the Father, and logically in a quite similar sense, having God the Grandfather or a God ancestry (Smith 613-614). Scientology is not clear about the social side of godhood as the Mormons are. Second, the Scientologist concept of becoming human is a humanization by mistake or assimilation to the MEST (the created universe); while Mormonists look at humanization and dying as a prerequisite to godhood.
As far away from the Christian concept of God as the Mormons, Scientologists need more creative and science fictionist thinking for their concept of God to get near to the Christian God because the chasm of differences is just so wide and deep to be bridgeable. As a point of fact, though, neither concept of God contradicts the Christian concept of God; and thus not of an authentic Christian religion.

The Concept of Personal Relationship with God

Unlike the Christian concept of a personal relation of man with God, the Scientologist concept of that relationship is practically nothing because its doctrine on the Eight Dynamics simply insists that the thetan (freed and infinite human) is god himself. Thus, in essence, the Scientologist concept of the ‘God-man’ relationship is a ‘Self-self’ relationship. Since the thetan (human) is himself god his relationship with god is a relationship to himself. Thus, while the relationship between a Christian and God is a relationship between a child and the Father, the Scientologist relationship with god is essentially a self-directed relationship if such can be called a relationship at all.

Some Historical Developments

Scientific Uproar: Less a year after the publication of Hubbard’s Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health in 1950, which claimed that Dianetics was based on careful research, the medical and psychiatric associations in America demanded that Hubbard submit to the American Medical Association and the American Psychological Association a copy or copies of his research on the ‘new’ mental health therapy; and when he failed to do so, recommended that the use of Dianetics be confined to the research milieu (Freeman 19).
The “Fair Game” Policy: An HCO Policy Letter signed by Hubbard on 18 October 1967 ordered an action called “Fair Game” against Scientology “ENEMY”, referred to as “SP” (Suppressive Person, or critic), which involved deprivation of property or injury by any means, or be tricked, sued, lied to, or destroyed (“Fair Game” n. p.). A year later, on 21 October 1968, another HCO Policy Letter came off cancelling the “Fair Game” policy as entry of its ethics code while affirming the same practice to continue.
Practice of Medicine without License: Scientology received a suit in 1995 for non-licensed practice of medicine after the death of Lisa McPherson under psychiatric treatment by the church for 17 days at Fort Harrison (Farley n. p.). Churchmen removed her, against the doctor’s advice, from the care of Morton Plan Hospital where she volunteered admission. Her condition deteriorated under Scientology care and died on arrival at a 45-minute drive hospital outside the Fort. The death suit was settled in 2004.

Cultural Position on Positive Social Change and Human Equality

Scientology is an exclusive and secretive religious organization with its own distinct sets of cultural features. It has its own exclusive dictionary of terms (e.g. “thetan,” “clear,” “MEST,” or “auditing”), calendar of holidays (e.g. “Auditor’s Day”), and locations of great religious significance (e.g. Hubbard’s Saint Hill Manor in England; Church of Scientology Flag Service Organization in Florida) (Pentikainen and Pentikainen 10). Social change is often viewed in the context of the internal lifestyle of its members and through its central process of “auditing” as the primary, if not sole, means of personal and social change. Its aim is always to progress from the First Dynamic to the Eight Dynamic, a process that even goes beyond the context of human society and into celestial, or perhaps extra-terrestrial, society.
Towards the society outside Scientology, its Association for Better Living and Education (ABLE) has offered its auditing services, such as Narconon (to combat drug addiction), Criminon (for criminal reform), and Applied Scholastics (for Scientology scientific education), to schools, businesses, and community groups as secular approaches for social betterment without demand or expectation for membership (DeChant and Jorgensen 299). In essence, its approach to social change is interventional using the Scientologist processes in achieving social change and often under the cultural environment of Scientology.
Moreover, its concept of human equality goes beyond the issue of gender and racial color. It operates within the assumption of equality between thetans whose racial or gender characteristics are out of question and rarely an issue (DeChant and Jorgensen 325). Although, it attempted to somehow conform to secular requirements of non-discrimination by trying to improve its organizational gender ratio, Scientology admitted that a large number of advanced members are largely males.

Furthermore, the behavior of Scientology members is strictly governed by its ‘technology of ethics’, which is founded on discipline, justice, and honor (Pentikainen and Pentikainen 10). An individual can be trusted with ethics but not with justice, which only the organization can administer. It teaches, however, that if ethics are well in place, justice is often unnecessary. In addition, ethics is about “integrity and honesty and doing what is right” (“Improving Conditions in Life”).
Compared to the Christian Beatitudes as quoted in the Gospel of Matthew, chapter 5, verses 2-10 and expounded in Jesus’ Sermon on the Mount from verses 11 to 48 (Jones NT 20-21), the Scientologist ‘technology of ethics’ has superficial similarities and dissimilarities (of course, a better comparison will be achieve with access to its full ethical codes, which is not possible unless to members). Both codes agreed in the importance they give on being happy (verses 2-10), doing what is right (verse 6), being peacemakers (verse 9), and getting involved in the cause of right (verse 10).

However, while the direction of the Scientologist ethics is towards happiness, prosperity, and survival, the essence of the Beatitudes revolves around poverty and deprivation, gentleness and peacemaking, compassion and mercy, and happiness in persecution. In many areas, except for happiness, both viewpoints contrast each other: Scientologist ‘prosperity’ vs. Christian ‘poverty’; ‘survival’ vs. ‘gentleness and peacemaking, compassion and mercy, and happiness in persecution’. In fact, its focus on survival both governs the centrality of their doctrine of the Eight Dynamics and their historically vicious behavior against critics (DeChant and Jorgensen 330). While the essence of the Sermon of the Mount highlighted an imitation of the sacrificial nature of Christ’s spirituality, the essence of Scientology is survival, of the fittest if you may, an urge towards life not death.

The general concept of life between Christianity and Scientology in the sense of finding and keeping it similarly points to ‘eternity’ in Christianity or ‘infinity’ in Scientology. Both terms are essentially comparable and interchangeable as eternity is essentially infinity and vice versa. However, the approach towards this eternity or infinity diverged in an opposite direction, conditioned by the divergence of their theology. Where Christianity proposed the path of sacrificial death in obedience to the will of God, the Scientologist path insists on not dying (that is, on survival) and instead being transformed into a god (thetan) with physical life intact. It is, however, unclear how Scientologists justify the death of its founder Hubbard as a proof of survival. There is a clear pitfall in justifying Hubbard’s death as an interpretation of reaching the Seventh or Eight Dynamic because it will have an implication that death by suicide may be justified to reach the last two highest Dynamic.

Conclusion

Lessons from the history and teachings of Scientology are something that seekers of religion need to ponder deeply with eyes widely open. Being a cultural phenomenon, religion involves and thrives through the strong emotions of its members. Once a passionate part, a person tends to evaluate the religion based on emotional parameters, instead of objective grounds. From the perspective of the unreligious Scientology promises a powerful religion, which can transform mortal men into immortal gods. It is the ‘best’ of what science and religion can offer. However, to those who are serious in the spirituality, such as Christians, the contrast between its doctrines with that of Christ can easily give an impression of science fictionist tone in the theories proposed, not to mention the primal passion for survival often at the cost of its opponents. The guarantee of safety and authenticity of religion, however, can only be gleaned upon its stability and soundness of doctrine through time, not by rhetoric or even science.

Works Cited

Does Scientology Have a Concept of God?” Scientology. Web. 27 July 2015
<http://www.scientology.org/faq/scientology-beliefs/what-is-the-concept-of-god-in-scientology.html>
“Fair Game.” Xenu. Web. 27 July 2015. <http://www.xenu.net/archive/disk/fairgame.htm>
“Improving Conditions in Life.” Scientology Handbook. Web. 27 July 2015.
<http://www.scientologyhandbook.org/conditions/sh10.htm>
“The Eight Dynamics.” Scientology. Web. 27 July 2015 <http://www.scientology.org/what-is-
scientology/basic-principles-of-scientology/eight-dynamics.html>
Blythe, Christopher James. “Hugh B. Urban: The Church of Scientology: A History of a New
Religion.” 49th Parallel Autumn 2012, 30(1): 1ff. PDF file.
DeChant, Dell and Danny L. Jorgensen. Chapter 14: The Church of Scientology: A Very New
American Religion. World Religions in America: An Introduction. 4th Ed. Ed. Jacob Neusner. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2003. 293-312. Print.
Farley, Robert. “Scientologists Settle Death Suit.” St. Petersburg Times 29 May 2004. Web. 27
July 2015. <http://www.sptimes.com/2004/05/29/Tampabay/Scientologists_settle.shtml>
Freeman, Lucy. “Psychologists Act against Dianetics.” The New York Times 9 September 1950:
19. Print.
Jones, Alexander. The Jerusalem Bible. London and New York: Darton, Longman & Todd and
Doubleday & Company, 1966. Print.
Methvin, Eugene M. “Scientology: Anatomy of a Frightening Cult.” Reader’s Digest [Reprint]
May 1980: 1-6. Print.
Pentikainen, Juha and Marja Pentikainen. The Church of Scientology. Helsinki, Finland:
Freedom Publishing, 1996. PDF file.
Smith, Joseph. “Discourse at Nauvoo, IL”. Times and Seasons 15 August 1844, 5(15): 612-617.
Print.

Continue reading 10 Pages

Political Violence Research Paper Samples

Introduction

One among the accepted reality in international relations is the prevailing recognition of the idea that terrorism is the weapon of the weak. This is further reinforced by the shocking turn of events on September 11, 2001 where a group of terrorist coordinated a series of bombing in the United States. However, many political analysts argued that terrorism is not solely associated as resort taken by the weak to get their messages across, rather, it also a means by which the strong impose their will on the former. While this may not be generally accepted, defining terrorism would shed

Continue reading 13 Pages

Court Essays Example

The American Immigration System

Immigration is a contentious issue in America today and many people and advocacy groups are highly opinionated on issues relating to immigration. The tone of the article generally depends on the viewpoint of the organization publishing the article. There are several barriers to United State citizenship including financial barriers, language barriers, and simply misinformation. The United States’ attitude to towards immigration seems to ebb and flow between encouraging and discouraging immigration.
Several article discuss the financial barriers, a structural barrier, that immigrants face when applying for citizenship. An article from the National Institute of Immigration Law Center discusses the

Continue reading 3 Pages

Essay On Importance of Sleep Quality over Sleep Quantity among College Students

Earlier studies have also reported the correlation between psychological problems (e.g. anxiety and depression) and nightmares, and more recent studies have focused on the correlation between suicidal tendencies and nightmares among adolescents. More particularly, according to Liu (2004), sleeplessness is more widespread in students with higher suicidal tendency, and this pattern is usually attended by frequent nightmares. Nightmares are described as intense dreams characterized by heightened feelings of fear that rouses the person, which normally take place during REM sleep. In a research of individuals experiencing major depression, Agargun and associates (1998) (as cited in Liu, 2004) illustrated that recurrent nightmares are linked to heightened suicidal ideation. Current studies indicate that nightmares are more widespread than initially thought.
Hershner and Chevin (2014) put forth another detrimental impact of sleep quality on psychological wellbeing. They reported that sleep disruption is an important factor which brings about poor sense of worth or self-image, which, in turn, could cause depression. They further conveyed that university experts are more inclined to handle depression as the greatest contributing factor to poor academic outcomes, neglecting the fact that a poor self-image caused by poor sleep quality is major root of depression. Thus, given these gaps in the literature, it is essential to identify the actual fundamental relationship between sleep quality and depression among college students.

Nonetheless, despite the comprehensiveness and validity of the findings about the greater importance of sleep quality over sleep quantity, some researchers claim that proponents of sleep quality did not take into consideration other factors that could influence academic performance among college students. Without taking into account sleep quantity, these researchers argue that it is not possible to draw an accurate conclusion about the actual impact of sleep disorders on the academic performance of college students (Wolfson & Carskadon, 2003). The studies of educators, social scientists, and developmental psychologists in evaluating aspects that focus on disparities in academic performance have emphasized the significance of a more inclusive model than most sleep experts have adopted.
Similarly, other social scientists currently argued that researchers that examine the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral performance of college students have to take into full account of the quantity of sleep on the psychological and physiological health of college students. They argue that sleep quality alone cannot account for the full aspect of the academic performance of college students. For instance, studies have reported that shorter duration of sleep affects the ability of college students to focus during classroom activities and examinations. Lawrence Epstein, a medical professor at Harvard University, argues for the importance of sleep quantity (American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2007, para 3):
Recent studies have shown that adequate sleep is essential to feeling awake and alert, maintaining good health and working at peak performance. After two weeks of sleeping six hours or less a night, students feel as bad and perform as poorly as someone who has gone without sleep for 48 hours. New research also highlights the importance of sleep in learning and memory. Students getting adequate amounts of sleep performed better on memory and motor tasks than did students deprived of sleep.
Several researchers support lengthier sleep for students because brain functions are also dependent on the amount of sleep an individual receives.

All of these contentions are valid and reasonable. It is true that both sleep quality and sleep quantity should be taken into account in the examination of the physical, cognitive, and behavioral performance of college students. Both sleep quality and sleep quantity affect the overall wellbeing of an individual. However, the primacy of sleep quality over sleep quantity has been supported by a fair number of studies. Stenzel (2015) firmly argues that college students should be trained in time management and taught about the importance of quality of sleep. He found out from his study of the impact of sleep quality on college students’ behavior that sleeping longer during weekends or free time does not compensate for the lack of efficient sleep. Deficient sleep quality is harder to recover than inadequate sleep quantity. Hence the argument of this paper stands—there should be a greater emphasis on sleep quality among college students.
In conclusion, there is a certain level of confusion between sleep quality and sleep quantity. Many mistakenly interchange the two. Sleep quantity refers to the quantifiable aspect of sleep, such as duration and amount of sleep, whereas sleep quality refers to the intangible characteristic of sleep such as its efficiency and depth. It is the contention of this paper that sleep quality has a greater influence on the academic performance of college students than sleep quantity. There are three supporting premises for this argument: the greater impact of sleep quality on the cognitive performance of students; on the onset of depression; and, on life satisfaction. Poor quality of sleep adversely affects the learning, memory, and concentration skills of students, while nothing of the sort has been mentioned for sleep quantity. According to several studies, too much sleeping can even impair daytime activities, but there is no such thing as ‘excessive’ sleep quality that could detrimentally affect an individual’s psychological, emotional, and physiological performance.
Depressive symptoms usually occur in individuals who are chronically deprived of quality sleep. Staying awake for a number of hours does not significantly contribute to the onset of depression among college students, but excessive stimulation or repetitive arousal during sleep can significantly affect the ability of an individual to cope with internal and external stressors. And, lastly, the wellbeing and quality of life of students is largely determined by the quality of sleep they obtain. The recuperating and invigorating impact of sleep is simply achieved through efficient sleep. However, not everyone is convinced that sleep quality is more important than sleep quantity. Several professionals from various disciplines still adhere to the idea that the duration and amount of sleep that students get significantly affects their ability to perform well academically. Some support a more balanced view of sleep quality and sleep quantity.

Primary References

American Academy of Sleep Medicine (2007, November 30). College students: getting enough sleep is vital to academic success. Retrieved from http://www.aasmnet.org/articles.aspx?id=659.
Edell-Gustafsson, U. (1999). Sleep, psychological symptoms and quality of life in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Uppsala, Sweden: Linkoping University. https://www.google.com.ph/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCEQFjAAahUKEwin5_Ok_PXGAhULSI4KHUqCAZA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.diva-portal.org%2Fsmash%2Fget%2Fdiva2%3A249227%2FFULLTEXT02.pdf&ei=J1ezVee3GIuQuQTKhIaACQ&usg=AFQjCNFTWpGghxcnvGlMBa3jnItZyM3_FA&sig2=bEsX_hMXMTqE9UfyC2lHdw&bvm=bv.98717601,d.c2E
Galambos, N., Howard, A., & Maggs, J. (2010). Rise and fall of sleep quantity and quality with student experiences across the first year of university. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(2), 342-349.
Gikunda, R. et al. (2014). The effect of sleep quantity on performance of students in public universities, Kenya. Merit Research Journal of Education and Review, 2(6), 113-118. https://www.google.com.ph/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCAQFjAAahUKEwiR6rSX_PXGAhWJjo4KHdk2AmQ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmeritresearchjournals.org%2Fer%2Fcontent%2F2014%2FJune%2FGikunda%2520et%2520al.pdf&ei=C1ezVdG4BomdugTZ7YigBg&usg=AFQjCNEUDQJxV-UTOTxn89xNx8eF8IYVog&sig2=6DMgKt4XXobK1l81KvX5xg&bvm=bv.98717601,d.c2E
Gilbert, S., & Weaver, C. (2010). Sleep quality and academic performance in university students: a wake-up call for college psychologists. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 24, 295-306.
Gruber, R. & Brouillette, R. (2006). Towards an understanding of sleep problems in childhood depression. Sleep, 29(3), 351-358. http://www.journalsleep.org/Articles/290401.pdf
Gunnarsdottir, K. (2014). Effects of poor subjective sleep quality on symptoms of depression and anxiety among adolescents. Thesis Paper for the Department of Psychology, 2-16.
Hershner, S., & Chervin, R. (2014). Causes and consequences of sleepiness among college students. Nature and Science of Sleep NSS, 6, 73-84.
Johansson, A. (2012). Sleep-wake-activity and health-related quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease. Linkoping University Medical Dissertations, 1272, 3-107.
Liu, X. (2004). Sleep and adolescent suicidal behavior. Sleep, 27(7), 1351-1358.
Lowry, M., Dean, K., & Manders, K. (2010). The link between sleep quantity and academic performance for the college student. The University of Minnesota Undergraduate Journal of Psychology, 3, 16-19. http://faculty.oxy.edu/clint/physio/article/TheLinkBetweenSleepQuantityandAcademic.pdf
Pilcher, J., Ginter, D., & Sadowsky, B. (1997). Sleep quality versus sleep quantity: relationships between sleep and measures of health, well-being and sleepiness in college students. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 42(6), 583-596.
Stenzel, J. (2015). Sleep quality and negative associated behaviors of college students: A Cross-Sectional Study. The Spectrum: A Scholars Day Journal, 3(10), 1-11.
Telzer, et al. (2013). The effects of poor quality sleep on brain function and risk taking in adolescence. NeuroImage, 71, 275-283.
Trockel, M., Barnes, M., & Egget, D. (2000). Performance among first-year college students: implications for sleep and other behaviors. Journal of American College Health, 49, 125-131.
Wolfson, A. & Carskadon, M. (2003). Understanding adolescents’ sleep patterns and school performance: a critical appraisal. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 7(6), 491-506.

Secondary References

Agargun, M.Y. et al. (1998). Repetitive and frightening dreams and suicidal behavior in patients with major depression. Comparative Psychiatry, 39, 198-202.
Bertocci, M.A. et al. (2005). Subjective sleep complaints in pediatric depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(11), 1158-66.

Continue reading 11 Pages

Middle Paleolithic Era and the Emergence of Homo Sapiens

Check out this 30-page chapter of a sample research paper on human prehistory in the middle Paleolithic age and behold the mastery of our writers! With their assignment, homework, research, dissertation or essay help online, there is no task too hard for you to accomplish on the highest level of quality. Whenever you feel lost and uninspired or simply lack time, call out for our assistance and tackle all your academic challenges!

Continue reading 35 Pages
×
Don't Go!
Get -11% Off today for any essay!
Enter a discount code
LESSISMORE
Order Now